Riboflavin (mg/d)

Niacin (mg/d)e

Vitamin B6 (mg/d)

Folate (μg/d)f

Vitamin B12 (μg/d)

Pantothenic Acid (mg/d)

Biotin (μg/d)

Choline (mg/d)g

 

0.3*

2*

0.1*

65*

0.4*

1.7*

5*

125*

0.4*

4*

0.3*

80*

0.5*

1.8*

6*

150*

 

0.5

6

0.5

150

0.9

2*

8*

200*

0.6

8

0.6

200

1.2

3*

12*

250*

 

0.9

12

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

25*

550*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.3

400

2.4

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.7

400

2.4h

5*

30*

550*

1.3

16

1.7

400

2.4h

5*

30*

550*

 

0.9

12

1.0

300

1.8

4*

20*

375*

1.0

14

1.2

400i

2.4

5*

25*

400*

1.1

14

1.3

400i

2.4

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.3

400i

2.4

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.5

400

2.4h

5*

30*

425*

1.1

14

1.5

400

2.4h

5*

30*

425*

 

1.4

18

1.9

600j

2.6

6*

30*

450*

1.4

18

1.9

600j

2.6

6*

30*

450*

1.4

18

1.9

600j

2.6

6*

30*

450*

 

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

1.6

17

2.0

500

2.8

7*

35*

550*

eAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).

fAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

gAlthough AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.

hBecause 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12.

iIn view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.

jIt is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 μg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.

SOURCE: IOM (1997, 1998, 2000b, 2001).



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