origin, 56-58

reference heights and weights and, 72-74, 75

research recommendations, 11, 146

subgroups and special populations, 77

uses, 2, 14, 58, 124, 126

Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrition in the United Kingdom, 57

Dietary Supplement Act of 1992, 25, 31

Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, 31, 33

Dietary supplements.

See also Supplement Facts box

bioavailability considerations, 77, 110

botanical ingredients, 31-32

data support recommendations, 11, 145-146, 148-149

defined, 31 n.5

dietary intake data, 129

exposure assessment, 142-143

fortification issues, 49, 142-143

health claims, 30-31, 33

nutrient content claims, 33

nutrition labeling on, 17, 20, 23, 28, 30-33, 108-109, 110, 112

population-weighted reference value for, 8, 109

standards of identity, 49

structure/function claims, 33

ULs and, 78, 109-110, 146-147

Dietitians of Canada, 104

Discretionary fortification.

See also Fortification of food

Canadian policy, 54

charge to committee, 4, 15-16, 125

conceptual model, 131-138

decision-making approach, 9-11, 130, 131-138, 140-142

defined, 4, 45

dietary supplements and, 49, 142-143

EAR and, 9, 11, 131

examples, 135-138

existing practices, 138-140

exposure assessment, 11, 132, 135, 138, 142-143

FDA policy, 15, 45, 49-51, 142-143

food composition databases and, 139-140, 147-148

guiding principles, 4, 8-9, 16, 124-144

impacts, 8-9, 135, 147-148

implementation issues, 138-144

international harmonization of, 125

labeling issues, 20, 25, 27, 35, 138-139

nutrient content claims as a standard, 138-139

prevalence of inadequacy and, 8, 9, 125, 126-131, 136, 147-148

reference standards, 49, 50

research recommendations, 11, 145, 147-148

review of longstanding practices, 139-140

scientific justification and criteria, 8, 9, 126-131, 132

severity of adverse effect and, 11, 130, 140-142

for special-use products, 143-144

ULs and, 9, 11, 15-16, 17, 67, 130, 131, 134-137, 140-143, 147

vulnerable populations, 15-16, 17, 143-144

E

Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970, 20, 34

Energy intakes

and DRIs, 2, 76-77

labeling values, 27, 35, 39, 97-101, 193

and nutrient intakes, 130

Energy metabolism, 70

Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)

cut-point method, 127

defined, 3, 61, 75-76, 83-84

derivation of, 62, 75

and discretionary fortification, 9, 11, 131

by nutrient and life-stage group, 180-183

nutrients without, 146

as nutrition labeling basis, 5, 6, 7-8, 75-76, 82-91, 94, 106, 108, 116, 173, 177, 178

and RDA, 62, 63, 64, 66, 89-91

research recommendations, 11, 145, 146

skewed distribution of requirements and, 85

uses, 62

Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs), 98

Exposure assessment, 11, 132, 135, 138, 142-143

Extrapolation of data, 63, 66, 69, 72, 138



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