are within 20 percent of the population-weighted EAR, and 72 to 95 percent will have requirements that fall within 30 percent of this value for the list of nutrients examined. Using Canadian 2006 population predictions, 55 to 86 percent will be within 20 percent and 73 to 96 percent will be within 30 percent of the population-weighted EAR. The observed ranges highlight two important differences among nutrients: (a) the variation in requirements within the life stage and groups, represented by the CV of the requirement distribution, differs among the nutrients, and (b) the requirements for some nutrients differ more markedly among life stage and gender groups than do others. For nutrients with considerable variation in requirements within and among gender and life stage groups (e.g., vitamin A), the “spread” around the population-weighted EAR is greater than for those nutrients that have requirements that are less variable (e.g., iodine). Nevertheless the modeling in Tables B-1 and B-2 confirms that a population-weighted EAR is relevant to the vast majority of individuals in the target population. Thus it provides a reasonable basis for a DV that individuals can use to evaluate the nutrient contributions of a particular food to the total diet.

The Population-Weighted EAR and the RDA

The committee’s recommendation to use population-weighted EARs as the basis for the DVs represents a move beyond past practice in light of new scientific evidence. Past practice based DVs on the highest of the RDAs or Recommended Nutrient Intakes for all individuals in the population. The logic behind this choice was to set a value that was high enough to cover the needs of almost every individual in the population. Because the RDA was set to include a margin of safety, it was considered a prudent choice for nutritional advice for the general public. Furthermore, when the existing DVs were set, the EAR concept had not been developed, and the only quantification of requirements was in the form of RDAs.

In many cases using the highest RDA yields DVs that are so high that they are essentially irrelevant for most of the population. On the other hand, a rationale that has been given in support of using the highest RDA is that there should be some special attention given to the most vulnerable group, which is defined to be the group with the highest requirements, thought by some to be young children. Examination of the DRIs reveals, however, that the group with the highest requirements (with the exception of iron for women of childbearing age) is typically males, including young males. These high intake requirements are based on the rapid growth of this age

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