The AMDRs were set because, in the case of some macronutrients or their components, it was not possible to identify a numerical amount where there was a causal relationship between intake and function or criterion of adequacy. Rather, the data better supported a range of intakes that also reflected varying energy needs in the population.

Since there were sufficient data, both an EAR and an AMDR were set for protein and total carbohydrate. Only an AMDR was developed for total fat. The committee recommends using the AMDR to derive the DV for protein, total carbohydrate, and total fat in order to provide a consistent approach that has its basis in risk reduction of chronic disease and healthful dietary practices.

EARs for protein were established for adult males and females based on a rigorous analysis of available nitrogen balance studies. An EAR for protein was established for children ages 1 through 13 years based on a factorial method that adds the amount of protein needed for maintenance based on body weight to the amount needed for protein deposition (IOM, 2002a). The maintenance requirements of adults and the estimates of protein deposition were used to establish the EAR for males and females ages 14 through 18 years. The EARs for protein are expressed in terms of gram per kilogram of body weight and are based on good quality or “complete” protein (IOM, 2002a). Assumptions about body weight would be needed to convert the EAR for protein into grams per day in order to set a reference value for nutrition labeling based on a population-weighted EAR. Deriving a label reference value for protein based on the new reference weights included in the DRI macronutrient report (IOM, 2002a) may not be representative of the requirements of the North American population, which has a high percentage of overweight individuals (see “New Reference Heights and Weights” in Chapter 4). Also, a label reference value for protein derived in this manner would likely be below the AMDR of 10 to 35 percent of energy for adults and 10 to 30 percent of energy for older children.

An EAR for total carbohydrate of 100 g/day was set for boys, girls, men, and women of all age groups. The EAR was based on the average minimum amount of glucose utilized by the brain. This level of intake, however, is typically exceeded to meet total energy needs while consuming acceptable levels of fat and protein. Thus using the EAR for total carbohydrate would result in a very low label reference value (e.g., 20 percent of calories for a 2,000-calorie diet), which also would be below the AMDR of 45 to 65 percent of energy for carbohydrate.

An EAR was not set for total fat because there were insufficient



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