Index

A

Absenteeism, 188–189.

See also Lost workdays

Accommodation, workplace, 9, 16, 176–177

concept of disability and, 16, 214–215

cost, 216

current implementation, 216, 226

effectiveness, 216–217, 226

goals, 175, 216

hierarchy of controls concept, 175–176

legal basis, 159–163, 215

public policy conceptualization, 215

reasonable, 215

relief of obligation to provide, 161–163, 164–165

research needs, 225, 226

See also Job design/redesign

Administrative support occupations, 50, 147

Age Discrimination in Employment Act, 156, 157, 158, 224, 225

Age-related changes, 2–3, 95

acute stress response and, 101

assessment considerations, 100–101

bone anatomy and function, 104–105

cognitive functioning, 113–115

conceptual models, 97–100

future trends, 99–100

hearing loss, 103, 179–180

homeostasis concept of, 98

immune function, 106

implications for work performance, 2, 116–118

individual differences, 99

life course perspective, 18–19, 96

metabolic functions, 105–106

mitigation of cognitive decrements, 118–120, 187

musculoskeletal system, 102

positive changes, 95, 118

productivity, 187–188

psychological, 112–113, 116

pulmonary function, 103–104

respiratory capacity, 181

scope of workplace interventions for, 8–9

skin conditions, 105

stress response, 108

thermoregulation, 106–107

visual function, 102–103, 177–178

Agriculture, 17, 180

injury and illness patterns, 146

older worker employment, 49, 51, 52

Alcohol use, 3–4

assessment, 213

controlled drinking, 112

extent of problems related to, 111–112

See also Substance abuse



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Index A homeostasis concept of, 98 immune function, 106 Absenteeism, 188–189. See also Lost implications for work performance, 2, workdays 116–118 Accommodation, workplace, 9, 16, 176–177 individual differences, 99 concept of disability and, 16, 214–215 life course perspective, 18–19, 96 cost, 216 metabolic functions, 105–106 current implementation, 216, 226 mitigation of cognitive decrements, 118– effectiveness, 216–217, 226 120, 187 goals, 175, 216 musculoskeletal system, 102 hierarchy of controls concept, 175–176 positive changes, 95, 118 legal basis, 159–163, 215 productivity, 187–188 public policy conceptualization, 215 psychological, 112–113, 116 reasonable, 215 pulmonary function, 103–104 relief of obligation to provide, 161–163, respiratory capacity, 181 164–165 scope of workplace interventions for, research needs, 225, 226 8–9 See also Job design/redesign skin conditions, 105 Administrative support occupations, 50, 147 stress response, 108 Age Discrimination in Employment Act, thermoregulation, 106–107 156, 157, 158, 224, 225 visual function, 102–103, 177–178 Age-related changes, 2–3, 95 Agriculture, 17, 180 acute stress response and, 101 injury and illness patterns, 146 assessment considerations, 100–101 older worker employment, 49, 51, 52 bone anatomy and function, 104–105 Alcohol use, 3–4 cognitive functioning, 113–115 assessment, 213 conceptual models, 97–100 controlled drinking, 112 future trends, 99–100 extent of problems related to, 111–112 hearing loss, 103, 179–180 See also Substance abuse 291

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292 INDEX health promotion intervention, 205–206 Americans with Disabilities Act, 158–164, incidence trends, 141–142 172, 176, 215 mortality, 141 effectiveness, 224, 225 Caregiving roles, 93 Anthropometric data, 181 employee assistance program assistance, Arthritis, 181 210–211 Assessment training for, 202 age-related changes, 100–101 Caregiving stress cardiovascular health screening, 205– socioeconomic context and, 93 206 stress, work-related and, 210 depression, 110 Carpal tunnel syndrome, 184 disease screening in health promotion Cellular manufacturing, 5, 67 programs, 205 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, 127– in employee assistance programs, 207 128n2 on-the-job blood pressure monitoring, Chemical exposure, 11, 223–224, 229–230 140 Chronic fatigue syndrome, 111 substance abuse, 213 Cognitive functioning Auto service industry, 49, 50 age-related changes, 113–115 Automobile operation, 118, 178–179, 189– increased experience and expertise, 118– 190 120, 187 Autonomy and job control, 139, 144 mitigation of age-related decrements in, job demands-control model, 142, 145 118–120, 187 in lean production, 68 perceived control and, 142 life course, 92 training effectiveness, 191 as protective factor, 66, 142, 185 warning recognition, 182–183 trends, 63–66 work stress effects, 142 See also Mental health B Cohort effects, 20–21, 81 Collective bargaining, 151–152 Baby boom generation, 1, 13, 20–21, 26, 27 Communications industry, 49 Back pain/strain, 54–55, 84, 126, 127, 136 Comorbidity, 99 Biomechanical exposure, 6 research needs, 99 depression and, 109 Computer use, 178 high-risk jobs, 146 Conditions of work, 91–92 research needs, 11, 223–224 collective bargaining, 151–152 Blood pressure. See Hypertension gender differences, 84 Blue-collar workers, 140–141 health effects of, 136–145, 198–199 employment exit rate patterns, 43 hours worked, 5, 62–63, 136–137, 140 Bone, 104–105, 131–132 monitoring, 71–72 Bureau of Labor Statistics, psychosocial stress, 63–67, 142–143, recommendations for, 10, 11, 221, 184–185 222, 227 research needs, 137, 222 Business cycle effects, 37, 46 work organization systems, 61–62, 67– 72, 139 See also Job design/redesign; Stress, C work-related Contract workers, 16, 136 Cardiovascular disease, 186 labor market trends, 57–60 conditions of work and, 66, 138–139, Control. See Autonomy and job control 140–142, 143–144 Current Population Survey, 227 cost of, 138

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293 INDEX D Educational services industry older worker employment, 48, 49 Demographics projected employment trends, 49, 50 current age distribution, 1, 13, 27 Elder care, 93, 202, 210–211 ethnic minorities, 87–88 Electromagnetic field exposure, 109 labor force participation trends, 32–37 Employee assistance programs, 10, 207– life expectancy trends, 26–27 214, 225–226, 227–228 older worker distribution by industry, Employee Retirement Income Security Act, 47–49 169, 171–172 past trends, 27–31 Employment-at-will doctrine, 150–151 projected trends, 32 Employment exit rate patterns recommendations for research, 226–227 service economy, 43 See also Population aging socioeconomic context and, 43, 46 Department of Labor, 11, 230 Employment rate, 37, 53 Depression exit rate trends, 37–43 occupational injury and, 109 international comparison, 83 prevalence, 108–109 in nonstandard forms of employment, related costs, 109 57–60 research challenges, 110 projected trends, 49–50, 52 in retirement, 109–110 variation by industry, 41–43, 47–50 as stress response, 109 Equal Employment Opportunity workplace issues, 3, 195–196 Commission, 157, 161 Diet, 202–204 Ergonomic design, 183–184, 226 Disability. See Impairments/disabilities, Executive/administrative/managerial workers with occupations, 50, 51 Disability insurance, 8, 166, 172. See also Exercise, 204 Workers’ compensation Exposures in workplace Discrimination, 7–8 bone disorders related to, 104 against immigrant workers, 60 gender differences, 84 health outcomes, 90, 91 hearing loss related to, 103, 180 legal protections against, 15, 154–163 high-risk jobs, 146 manifestations of, 90 immune response, 106 minority worker experience, 89, 91 intracohort differences in work multiple forms of, 90 experience, 22–23 political economy perspective, 90–91 legal standards for worker protection, research needs, 89 154–156 worker concerns, 90 life course perspective, 18–19, 96 mental functioning outcomes, 121–122 outcome determinants, 96–97 E outcomes, 123–128 pulmonary problems related to, 103–104 Earned income tax credit, 170 research needs, 10, 11, 222, 223–224, Education system, 21 229 Educational attainment risk for minorities, 90 disability effects and, 165 skin health and, 105 employment exit rate patterns and, 43 vulnerabilities of older workers, 15–16, employment trends, 81 96–100 job security and, 81–82 minority elderly, 88 morbidity/mortality and, 77–78

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294 INDEX F H Falls, 104, 181, 189. See also Occupational Health and Retirement Study, 10, 46, 53, illness or injury 219, 220, 221 Families and couples Health care industry, 70–71, 110, 136, 186 retirement planning, 21 injury and illness patterns, 146 role stress in, 92–93 Health insurance, 8 Family and Medical Leave Act, 164, 224, access and participation, 8, 55, 57, 170– 225 171, 172–173 Farming/forestry/fishing occupations, 51, post-retirement coverage, 170–173 52, 147, 180. See also Agriculture; private, 173 Forestry/fishing/trapping regulation, 171–172 Fatalities. See Mortality social security system benefits, 39 Fatigue, 181 sources, 172–173 Fertility, 1, 13, 26 Health Insurance Portability and Financial services industry Accountability Act, 172 employment exit rate patterns, 43 Health promotion, 9 older worker employment, 48 cardiovascular intervention, 205–206 Forestry/fishing/trapping caregiver training, 202 injury and illness patterns, 146 challenges to implementation, 202 older worker employment, 49 current program implementation, 199, projected employment trends, 49 200–201 See also Farming/forestry/fishing dietary and nutritional interventions, occupations 202–203 disease screening, 205 effectiveness, 200, 225, 227–228 G in employee benefit structure, 199 exercise programs, 204 Gender goals, 199 distribution by industry, 48, 49 obstacles to research, 200–201 distribution by occupation, 50–52 rationale, 201–202 employment exit rate trends, 37–40 research needs, 225, 227–228 future of work, 86–87 targets, 199, 200, 202 hazardous exposure risk, 84 therapy management, 204, 228 hours worked, 62, 63 work environment and, 198–199 income differences, 85 Hearing loss intracohort differences in work aging-related, 103, 179 experience, 22 causes, 180 labor force participation trends, 32, 35– job design to accommodate, 179–181 37, 46, 83, 84–85 prevention, 180 life expectancy patterns, 27 High-performance work organizations, 5, older worker employment rate, 53 67, 69 physical capacity, 181 High-risk jobs, 6, 146–147, 205–206 population aging patterns, 1, 27, 30–31 Hiring practices projected employment trends, 50, 83 antidiscrimination law, 156–157 research needs, 87 disadvantages of older workers, 15 social gradient and morbidity/mortality, employment-at-will doctrine, 150–151 77 HIV-positive workers, 159 in work–health relationship, 83–87 Homeostasis, 98 workplace issues, 4 Hours worked See also Women gender differences, 62, 63 General duty clause, 155 international comparison, 62

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295 INDEX patterns for older workers, 62–63 Supplemental Security Income, 167–168 risk of injury and, 136–137, 140 types of, 165–166 trends, 62–63 workers’ compensation programs, 166– work week length, 5 167 Housework, 86–87, 92–93 Independent contractors, 8 Human factors design, 186 labor market trends, 57–60 Hypertension, 138, 139–140, 141, 143, Industry type 185–186, 205–206 employment exit rate patterns, 41–43 high-risk jobs, 146 injury and illness distribution, 124–127 I mortality patterns, 127–128 older worker distribution, 47–50 Illegal workers. See Undocumented workers projected employment patterns, 49–50 Immigration, 60 See also specific industry Immune function, 106 Insurance. See Disability insurance; Health Impairments/disabilities, workers with insurance; Workers’ compensation antidiscrimination and accommodation Interventions, workplace law, 158–164 Americans with Disabilities Act chronic illness, 162 requirements, 176 conceptual model of, 214–215 blood pressure monitoring, 140 current status, 53, 54–55 conceptual basis, 175–176 defined, 16, 158–159, 162–163, 215 effectiveness, 12, 224–227 demographic trends, 36 employee assistance programs, 207–214, income replacement programs, 165–173 225–226, 227–228 life expectancy, 99 goals, 174–175 public policy approach, 215 hierarchy of controls approach, 175– return-to-work programs, 9–10, 163– 176, 177 165 research needs, 10, 11–12, 224–227 types of workplace interventions, 9 scope of, 8–10, 24–25, 177 unemployment risk, 82 worker education, 174 See also Accommodation, workplace; See also Accommodation, workplace; Occupational illness or injury Health promotion; Job design/ Income redesign; Training interventions gender differences, 85 health linkages, 61 intracohort differences in work J experience, 22–23 life course patterns, 188 Job design/redesign, 8, 177 morbidity/mortality and, 76–77, 78, 79 to accommodate hearing loss, 179–181 racial/ethnic differences, 89 to accommodate physical changes, 181– societal distribution, 60 182 trends, 5, 56, 60 to accommodate vision decrements, Income replacement programs 177–179 adequacy, 167 anthropometric data for, 181 earned income tax credit, 170 case studies, 182 health insurance coverage, 170–173 effectiveness, 185–186, 225 private pension programs, 169–170 ergonomic, 183–184 rationale, 165 psychological factors, 184–185 Social Security Disability Insurance, 166 research needs, 225 Social Security Old Age program, 168– warning systems, 182–183 169

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296 INDEX L trends, 5, 57 work organization systems, 67–70 Labor force Matthew effect, 22 business cycle effects, 37, 46 Medicaid, 172 exit rate trends, 37–43 Medicare, 172 future supply challenges, 23 Membership assistance programs, 207 gender distribution, 32, 35–37, 46, 62, Mental health 83, 84–85 age-related changes, 112–113, 116 measurement, 32 aging effects on job performance, 116– nonstandard forms of employment, 57– 118 60 benefits of multiple social roles, 93–94 participation trends, 32–36, 83 complications of psychosocial pension arrangements as factor in dysfunction, 98 participation, 83 effects of work on, 120–122, 138, 139, population aging patterns, 1, 13, 83 142–143, 195–196 racial/ethnic distribution, 89–90 employment and self-concept, 79, 109– recent economic trends and, 56–61 110 research needs, 46–47 job design to enhance, 184–185 structure of work organizations, 61–62 preretirement planning and, 212–213 trade union membership, 60 research needs, 223 Lean production, 5, 67, 68–69, 137 retirement and, 109–110 Leaves of absence, 164–165 scope of work-related issues, 3, 107 Legally mandated interventions. See sleep problems, 110–111 Regulation unemployment and, 82 Life course perspective work status and, 79–81 cohort effects in, 20–21 See also Cognitive functioning; Stress, conceptual basis, 96 work-related focus of research, 19 Metabolic function, 105–106 intracohort differences in, 18, 20, 22–23 Mine Safety and Health Act (1977), 154, 164 limitations of, 19–20 Mining industry, 43, 49, 146 social relationship effects in, 20, 21–22 Minorities traditional model of work life, 17 course of work life, 18 Life expectancy, 1, 13, 26–27 discrimination effects, 91 of adults with disability, 99 educational attainment patterns, 88 Liver, 105–106 health issues of older workers, 87–89 Lost workdays, 124, 126 immigrant workers, 60 distribution by industry and occupation, intracohort differences in work 126, 131 experience, 22 distribution by worker characteristics, population aging patterns, 1, 27, 87–88 131, 188–189, 217–218 research needs, 89–90 duration of injury-related absence, 131– See also Race/ethnicity 132, 134–135, 217–218 Modular manufacturing, 5, 67, 69–70 trends, 6 Mortality, 6, 189 See also Absenteeism epidemiology, 127–128, 135–136, 147 seasonal patterns, 106 social gradient and, 75–76, 77–78, 141 M unemployment and, 82 Motor functions, 54 Manufacturing sector, 3 Musculoskeletal disorders injury and illness patterns, 6, 125–126, age-related changes, 102, 181 146 causes, 195 older worker employment, 48

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297 INDEX cost, 127 conceptualizations of health and definition, 127 disability, 16 epidemiology, 127, 132–134 current prevalence, 54–55 gender differences, 84, 195 data sources, 7, 123, 132 high-risk jobs, 146 depression related to, 109 job design to accommodate, 181–182 duration of work absence due to, 131– job design to prevent, 183–184 132, 135, 217–218 training to prevent, 196–198 early work experiences as cause of, 15– work conditions as risk factor for, 137– 16, 96–97 138, 145 economic burden, 5, 147–148, 217, 229 workplace regulation to minimize, 155– epidemiology, 123–131, 147 156 gender differences, 84 See also Back pain/strain; Bone high-risk jobs, 6, 146–147, 205–206 job characteristics and, 6–7 job strain effects, 66, 67 N job transfer to prevent, 164 life course perspective, 18–19 National Center for Health Statistics, 11, outcome factors, 217–218 229–230 research needs, 10, 11, 221–222 National Health and Nutrition Examination risk for newer employees, 182, 189 Survey, 229–230 trends, 5–6, 131 National Health Interview Survey, 229 underreporting of, 10, 128–131, 221, National Institute for Occupational Safety 222–223 and Health See also Impairments/disabilities, recommendations for, 10, 11, 221, 222, workers with, falls 223, 229–230 Occupational Information Network work conditions monitoring, 71, 72 (O*NET) database, 3, 11, 228–229 Night shift work, 195 Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970), Nonstandard workers, 16, 57–60, 136 15, 154–156, 175–176, 225 Nursing profession, 70. See also Health care Occupational Safety and Health industry Administration, 221, 227 Nutrition, 202–204 Office environment, 179 Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (1990), 156 O O*NET. See Occupational Information Network database Occupation types Organization of work. See Work employment exit rate patterns and, 43 organization systems high-risk jobs, 6, 146–147 Outplacement, 214 injury and illness distribution, 126–127 morbidity/mortality distribution, 75–76, 78, 79–82 P older worker distribution, 47, 50–52 sex segregation, 84 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 10, 220, sleep problems and, 110 221 trends, 52, 57, 81 Part-time work, 84–85 See also Industry type; specific Patient-focused care, 67, 70–71 occupation Pension plans, 21 Occupational illness or injury coverage trends, 57, 169 age-mediated outcomes, 134–136 defined-benefit plans, 169–170 age-related patterns, 6, 131–134 defined-contribution plans, 169 age-related risk, 95, 134

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298 INDEX pension arrangements as factor in labor course of work life, 17 force participation, 83 of retirement options, 20–21 regulation, 169 Public policy retirement trends, 32–33, 34 conceptual model of disability, 215 Personal services employment, 49, 50 conceptual model of occupational life Pesticide exposure, 109 course, 17 Pharmacotherapy, 203, 204, 213 incentives to hire older workers, 15 Physical health issues for older workers, 7–8, 13–14, accommodating age-related changes, 23–24 181–182 labor market exit protections, 165–173 age-related changes, 2 research needs, 11–12, 14, 224–226 current status of older workers, 53, 54– retirement issues, 24, 34–35 55 See also Regulation data sources, 53 Public sector employment, 49, 154 fitness training, 196–198 Pulmonary function, 103–104 gender differences in work–health relationship, 83–87 Q income and, 61 life course perspective, 18–19 Quality circles, 68 occupational injury patterns, 6 Quality of Employment Survey, 71, 230 social gradient and, 74–79 socioeconomic linkages, 73–74, 94 unemployment and, 82–83 R work-related factors in, 74–75, 78, 79– 82, 195–196 Race/ethnicity, 4 See also Occupational illness or injury; demographic trends in disability/ specific disorder impairment, 36 Piece-work, 69 discrimination effects, 89, 91 Political economy theory, 90–91 educational attainment patterns, 88 Population aging employment exit rate patterns, 43 causes, 1, 13, 26 hazardous exposure risk and, 90 disability/impairment trends, 36 income differences, 89 employment trends, 32–37, 49–50, 83 intracohort differences in work implications for public pension system, experience, 22 34–35 population aging patterns, 1, 27, 87–88 near-term retirement patterns, 26 poverty risk and, 85, 88–89 See also Demographics social gradient and morbidity/mortality, Poverty 77 demographic trends, 33–34 See also Minorities labor participation patterns and, 33–34 Radiation exposure, 146 race/ethnicity and risk of, 88–89 Reengineering, 5, 67 Presbycusis, 103 Regulation, 149–150 Private household services industry, 52, 147 antidiscrimination laws, 154–163 Production/craft/repair occupations, 50–51, collective bargaining rights, 151–152 147 conceptualization of private sector Productivity, 187–189 employment relationships, 150–151 Professional specialty occupations, 50, 51, 52 effectiveness, 8, 150, 156, 157, 158, Protective services employment, 52, 147 163, 224 Public opinion and knowledge enforcement, 153, 155 about older workers, 14–15 excluded workers and work settings, 8, cohort effects, 20–21 16–17, 152–153

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299 INDEX health insurance, 171–172 health insurance coverage after, 170–173 jurisdictional variation, 8, 16, 152–153 incentives/disincentives, 168, 169–170, legal definition of “older,” 15 171, 172, 173 private pension plans, 169 labor force participation trends, 32–35, public policy issues, 7–8 46–47 to reduce job stress, 186 mandatory, 156 research needs, 224–225 mental health complications in, 109–110 safety and health laws, 154–156 near-term demographic trends, 26 trends, 57 public beliefs and knowledge of options, See also Age Discrimination in 20–21 Employment Act; Americans with public policy issues, 24, 34–35, 46 Disabilities Act; Employee research needs, 219 Retirement Income Security Act; social context, 21–22 Family and Medical Leave Act; Social Security program, 168–169 General duty clause; Health stock market investment and, 169 insurance; Income replacement transition to, 17, 24 programs; Medicaid; Medicare; Mine trends in individual resources for, 32–34 Safety and Health Act; Social typical age, 32–34, 86 Security Systems; Workers’ Retirement History Survey, 219 compensation Return-to-work programs, 9–10, 163–164, Research needs, 1–2, 14 217–218, 225 comorbidity, 99 Road signs, 178–179 conditions of work and health outcomes, 137, 141–142, 222–223 S cost of occupational illness and injury, 229 Sales occupations, 50 data systems, 10–11, 219–223, 227 Satisfaction. See Work satisfaction educational and training interventions, Screening, 205 198 Self-employment, 8, 17, 37, 53 effectiveness of interventions, 10, 224– occupational injury risk, 136 227 See also Independent contractors exposures in workplace, 10, 11, 222, Seniority systems, 151, 152 223–224 Service economy, 3, 56 gender differences, 87 current labor market, 57 health–work experiences of minorities, employment exit rate patterns, 43 89–90 older worker employment, 49, 51, 52 labor participation trends, 46–47 projected employment trends, 50, 57 occupational illness or injury worker mental health and, 107 assessments, 7, 221–222 Skills for work recommendations, 10–12, 219–230 physical demands, 54, 55 return-to-work studies, 9–10 trends, 5, 57, 81 Respiratory capacity, 181 Skin, 105 Retail sector employment, 48 Sleep problems, 110–111 Retirement, 8 Small businesses, 17, 190 antidiscrimination laws, 156 Smoking, 81 conceptual models, 17 Social relationships counseling in employee assistance benefits of multiple social roles, 93–94 programs, 209, 212–213 life course perspective, 20, 21–22 determinants of subsequent health, 78– work status and health linkages, 81 79 Social Security System, 8 gender differences, 85, 86 benefits for women, 85

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300 INDEX disability insurance, 166, 172 trends, 63–67 disincentives to early retirement, 168, unpaid work roles and, 92–93 169 work organization systems and, 67–68 employment exit rate trends and, 38, 39, Substance abuse, 3, 111 43 employee assistance programs for, 207, flexible benefit designs in, 21 213 minority participation, 89 research needs, 112 Old Age program, 168–169 See also Alcohol use pressures of population aging, 34, 35 Suicide, 109 recent reforms, 34–35, 39 Supervisory style, 145 retirement trends, 32–33, 34 Supplemental Security Income, 167–168 Supplemental Security Income, 167–168 Supplements, dietary, 203 Social services employment, 50 Survey of Occupational Injuries and Socioeconomic context Illnesses, 123n1 caregiving stress, 93 community support for older workers, T 16 employment exit rate patterns and, 43, 46 Tax system, 21, 83 gender differences in retirement earned income tax credit, 170 experience, 86 Team concept work organizations, 5, 67 health linkages, 73–74, 94, 96–97, 140– Telecommunications industry, 70 142, 185 Temperature regulation, 106–107 intracohort differences, 22–23, 74 Temporary employment, 136 job strain, 66 labor market trends, 57–60 mortality patterns, 141 Textile/garment industry, 69–70 political economy theory of aging, 90–91 Total quality management, 5, 67 research needs, 220–221, 226–227 Trade unions, 60, 70, 151–152 role of work-related factors in health, Training interventions, 9, 174 79–82 amount of, 193–194 social gradient and health, 74–79 benefits of, 194–195 trends in individual retirement resources, breadth of programs, 191 32–34 challenges in designing, 186 work experiences and health of minority effectiveness, 189, 191, 197–198 workers, 87, 88–89 to enhance caregiving skills, 202 workplace issues, 4–5 to enhance safety, 189–190 See also Income; Poverty health outcomes, 195–196 Strength, 182 to improve physical fitness, 196–198 Stress, work-related, 3 motivational barriers, 194 acute response to, 101 pacing, 192–193 age-mediated health outcomes related to, productivity-focused, 187–189 143–145 rationale, 186, 187, 188 aging and, 101, 108 research needs, 198, 225 caregiver stress and, 210 for small companies, 190 effects, 66, 67 successful, 190 job demands-control model, 142, 145 team training, 190–191 job design to reduce, 185–186 transfer effects, 191 mental health outcomes, 107–108, 142– types of, 192 143 Transportation and material moving occupational injury risk and, 137, 139, occupations, 51, 52, 110, 118, 140, 140–142 178–179, 206 protective factors, 66, 68, 93–94 injury and illness patterns, 146, 147

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301 INDEX U Women labor force participation, 4, 32, 35–37, Undocumented workers, 16–17 62 Unemployment and job displacement part-time workers, 84–85 health linkages, 82 population aging patterns, 1, 27, 30–31, ill health as cause of, 82 32 mental health outcomes, 138, 184–185 poverty risk, 85 occupational injuries related to, 136, retirement experience, 85, 86 137 retirement planning issues, 21–22 outplacement programs, 214 Social Security benefits, 85, 166 risk factors, 81–82 special challenges for older workers, 17 Unions. See Trade unions substance use among, 111, 112 Unpaid work, 92–94 unpaid work roles, 92–93 Utilities industry widows, 85–86 injury and illness patterns, 146 See also Gender older worker employment, 49 Work ability index, 144–145 Work capacity concept, 144–145 Work conditions. See Conditions of work V Work organization systems, 61–62, 67–72, 139 Vision problems, 102–103, 159–160 Work satisfaction, 7, 54, 185 disease-related, 178 work organization systems and, 69, 70 job design/redesign to accommodate, Work week length, 5 177–179 Workers’ compensation, 166–167 Volunteer work, 92 accommodation requirements and, 165 underreporting of injury and illness, 130 Wound healing, 105 W Warning systems, 182–183 White-collar workers, 43

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