Index

Academic performance

health outcomes and, 76

parental educational attainment, 133–134

parental influences, 72

television/video viewing and, 80–81

Access to care, 84, 88–89, 152, 153

Accidents and injuries, 2

built environment design and, 66–67

childhood risk, 64–65

health care utilization related to, 65

mortality, 15, 64–65

prevention, 65, 87

trends, 65

workplace, 64

Adherence to treatment, 55–57

Administration for Children and Families, 66, 100, 197

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 6, 93–94, 99, 156–157, 197, 205

Age-related subpopulations, 113

biomarkers of susceptibility, 120

Aggregated data systems, 167–170, 205, 207–208

Aggressive behavior

electronic entertainments and, 79

parenting style and, 71

See also Violence

Air pollutants, 59, 64, 67

recommendations for research, 9, 203

Alcohol use and abuse

during pregnancy, 58

genetic factors, 48, 49

parental, 73

All Kids Count, 101, 173–174

Allergies, 50

American Community Survey, 9, 137, 203

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 98

Antibiotic resistance, 62

Arboviruses, 62

Asbestos, 64

Asthma, 2

hygiene theory, 50

Attachment formation and development, 54–55, 71

Attention deficit disorder, 2

Attitudes and beliefs, 126–127

assessing perceptions of built environment, 132

in chronic illness, 56

influence on health, 54, 55–56, 126–127

interventions targeting, 56

measurement, 126

Automobile accidents, 65, 66–67, 132


Back to Sleep campaign, 158

Bacteria, 59



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Children’s Health, The Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health Index Academic performance health outcomes and, 76 parental educational attainment, 133–134 parental influences, 72 television/video viewing and, 80–81 Access to care, 84, 88–89, 152, 153 Accidents and injuries, 2 built environment design and, 66–67 childhood risk, 64–65 health care utilization related to, 65 mortality, 15, 64–65 prevention, 65, 87 trends, 65 workplace, 64 Adherence to treatment, 55–57 Administration for Children and Families, 66, 100, 197 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 6, 93–94, 99, 156–157, 197, 205 Age-related subpopulations, 113 biomarkers of susceptibility, 120 Aggregated data systems, 167–170, 205, 207–208 Aggressive behavior electronic entertainments and, 79 parenting style and, 71 See also Violence Air pollutants, 59, 64, 67 recommendations for research, 9, 203 Alcohol use and abuse during pregnancy, 58 genetic factors, 48, 49 parental, 73 All Kids Count, 101, 173–174 Allergies, 50 American Community Survey, 9, 137, 203 Annie E. Casey Foundation, 98 Antibiotic resistance, 62 Arboviruses, 62 Asbestos, 64 Asthma, 2 hygiene theory, 50 Attachment formation and development, 54–55, 71 Attention deficit disorder, 2 Attitudes and beliefs, 126–127 assessing perceptions of built environment, 132 in chronic illness, 56 influence on health, 54, 55–56, 126–127 interventions targeting, 56 measurement, 126 Automobile accidents, 65, 66–67, 132 Back to Sleep campaign, 158 Bacteria, 59

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Children’s Health, The Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health Behavioral factors in children’s health, 45 adaptation in development, 54–55 behavior as health outcome and, 57, 128–129 cognitive factors, 54, 55–56, 126–127 conceptual model of health, 3–4, 38–49, 40–43 current data sources, 125–127 early programming concept, 53 education and, 76 emotion-related factors, 54 environmental influences and, 56–57, 132 genetic influences and, 31, 48 importance of, 57, 128 measurement, 124–129 scope of, 53 See also Influences on children’s health Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, 208 Biological influences on children’s health, 45 body stores, 51–52 conceptual model of health, 3–4, 38–49, 40–43 early programming concept, 52–53 future prospects for noninvasive assessment, 124 genetic factors, 47–51 interaction with external environment, 47, 48–51 measurement, 118–124 See also Influences on children’s health Biomarkers, 7, 118–124, 158, 209 Body burden, 51–52 biomonitoring programs, 120–121 Built environment, 66–67, 77–78, 131–133 Canada, 159–160, 183 Cat scratch disease, 62–63 Census Bureau, 9, 137, 180, 181, 203 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 5–6, 92, 120, 121, 187, 197, 205 Chemical exposures, 129–130, 209 Child abuse and neglect, 73, 134–135 Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, 151 Child Health USA, 97–98 Child Trends, Inc., 98 Child Well-Being and Welfare, 134 Children, defined, 2, 18 Children’s ScoreCard, 169–170, 171 Chronic health conditions current health measurement system, 92 prevalence, 14 treatment compliance in, 56 CityMatCH, 100–101 Cognitive functioning, 36 attitudes and beliefs as health determinants, 54, 55–56 electronic entertainments and, 80–81 influence on child’s health, 53 toxin exposures affecting, 51 Coining, 82 Committee on Evaluation of Children’s Health: Measures of Risk, Protective, and Promotional Factors for Assessing Child Health in the Community, 17–18 Community environment data collection and management, 100–101, 137–142, 169–170, 185–186, 189 demographic factors, 74–75, 137 health care service delivery system, 152–153 health measurement considerations, 25 influences on health, 74 neighborhood design, 77–78, 131–133 process factors, 75 recommendations for research, 8–9, 203–204 report cards, 170, 171 schools, 76 scope of, 74 social organization, 77–78, 137–138 violence in, 77, 138–139, 141 See also State and local data collection Comorbidity, 102 Computer and video games, 78–81 Confidentiality, 109, 176–178 in aggregated data systems, 167 in assessment and monitoring of health influences, 117 of geocoded data, 9, 203, 204 informed consent for sharing of data, 178–179 in linked data systems, 172–173 recommendations for research, 9–10, 204 security of data systems, 179–180 Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey, 151, 187 Cost of care, 149 Crime, 203, 204 law enforcement data, 169–170

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Children’s Health, The Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health Critical periods, 39, 50–51 early programming, 52–53 in fetal development, 58 Culture, 24–25 acculturation effects, 143, 145, 202 concepts of children and children’s health, 28–29 definition, 81, 143 family beliefs, 68 family learning environment, 72 health measurement considerations, 43, 81–83, 108, 118, 142–146, 200, 202 parenting style, 71 research needs, 209 treatment compliance and, 57 Cupping, 82 Current Population Survey, 133, 135, 143 Cystic fibrosis, 49, 85 Cytomegalovirus, 62 Data collection on access to care, 152, 153 access to data, 9–10, 168–169, 178–180, 189–191, 203, 204, 205 assessing effectiveness of health services, 150, 151–152, 153 on behavioral influences on health, 124–129 on biological influences on health, 118–124 biological samples, 121–123, 124, 180–182 on built environment, 131–133 on child functioning, 103, 113, 199 clinical data, inadequacies in, 98–100, 102– 103, 136 on community influences on health, 100–101, 137–142 competing stakeholder interests in, 185 confidentiality in, 9–10, 109, 176–178 creating profiles and integrative measures of health, 104–106, 154–155, 158–159, 165 on cultural factors, 43, 81–83, 108, 118, 142–146, 200, 202 current system, 1, 12, 21, 26–27, 91–101, 193, 199 discrimination effects, 146–149 environmental factors, 8–9, 199–200, 203–204 family factors, 133–137 future prospects, 124, 209 geographic variation, 8–9, 203–204 on health conditions, 102–103 on health potential, 103–104, 199 health-related quality of life, 105 informed consent issues, 178–179 infrastructure for, 183–185 investigator-initiated surveys, 95–96, 126 to monitor health policy outcomes, 25, 149–150, 155–162 national data syntheses, 97–98 newborn screen testing, 120, 180–181 as ongoing effort, 159–160 on positive factors, 114, 118 proxy respondents, 107 rationale, 165–166, 192–193 recommendations for, 5–9, 196–204 on referrals from primary care to specialists, 154 reliability and validity, 107–109 security concerns, 179–180 standardization, 10–11, 182–183, 204–205, 206, 207–208 state and local government role in, 206–208 on subgroup disparities, 8, 118, 201–202 survey methodology, inadequacies in, 95, 96–97, 102–103, 109, 110, 117–118 terminology, 165 toxin exposure, 120–121, 129–130 See also Measurement system for children’s health; State and local data collection Data element, defined, 165 Data system, defined, 165 Dataset, defined, 165 David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 100 Definition and framework for children’s health, 12, 13–14, 17, 18, 19–20, 26 conceptual model of health, 37–38, 41–43 cultural variation, 24–25 current conceptualizations, 32–33 domains of health, 4, 6, 33–37, 195, 199 historical and conceptual development, 28–32 implications for measurement, 13–14, 197–198 policy development and, 160–161 recommendations, 3–5, 194–196 Department of Health and Human Services, 5–6, 9, 10, 196–197, 203, 204–205 Depression, 69 parental, 72–73 Developing a Daddy Survey, 96 Development, 12 assessing discrimination effects, 146–147 behavioral adaptation in, 54–55, 127

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Children’s Health, The Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health body stores and, 51–52 childhood precursors of adult health, 24, 40, 114, 192 conceptual model of health, 3–5, 38–40, 41–43, 45–46, 192, 194–196 considerations in measurement of children’s health, 6, 12, 39, 107, 108–109, 110–112, 113, 192, 199, 208–209 dependency of children, 23 early programming concept, 52–53 family influence and, 69 gene expression patterns, 50–51 parenting and, 71 peer influences, 78 rationale for children’s health research, 22–24 sensitive and critical periods, 39, 49–50 sociocultural context, 29 transition stages, 40, 112 Diabetes, 2 Diagnostic classification, 30 inadequacies in children’s health data collection, 98–100, 102–103 Diet and nutrition biomonitoring program, 121 during pregnancy, 52–53 early programming concept, 52–53 family factors in, 72 fetal exposure to toxins, 59 food contaminants, 61–62 television viewing and, 80 Dioxin exposure, 121 Disability-adjusted life years, 105–106 Disadvantaged groups assessing effectiveness of health policies, 157–158 current disparities in health care delivery, 15 opportunities for improving health measurement, 112 poverty and health, 69–70 recommendations for children’s health measurement, 7, 8, 201 See also Minority populations Discrimination, 82–83 measuring health effects of, 146–149 research challenges, 146, 147–148 research needs, 148–149 stress of worrying about, 148 Divorce, 70 Domains of children’s health, 4, 6, 33–37, 43, 101–104, 195, 199 Drinking water, 58–61, 87, 88 Drug use and abuse current data collection efforts, 126 during pregnancy, 58 parental, 73 See also Alcohol use and abuse Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative, 155 Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies, 8, 199 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, 96, 127 Birth Cohort, 96, 127 Kindergarten Class, 96, 127 Early intervention, 84, 155 Early warning, 3, 16–17, 194, 198 Economic analysis, 105–106 Electronic media, 78–81 Emotional functioning, 36 behavioral adaptation in development, 55 inadequacies in children’s health data collection, 102–103 influence on child’s health, 53, 54 treatment compliance and, 56 Empacho, 82 Environmental factors, 3–4, 14 assessing effects of environmental policy, 158 behavioral influences on health and, 56–57, 132 built environment, 66–67, 77–78, 131–133 community environment, 74–78, 137–142 concept of safety, 19 in conceptual model of health, 3–4, 195 culture, 81–83, 142–146 emotional response to, as health influence, 54 family factors, 68–73 health influence of, 14, 57 home exposures, 64 injury risk, 64–65 interaction with biological factors, 47, 48–51 measurement of health influence of, 6–7, 129–133, 199–200 noise exposure, 63 radiation exposure, 63 recommendations for children’s health measurement, 8–9, 203–204 recommendations for research, 11–12, 208, 209 school exposures, 64

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Children’s Health, The Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health scope of, 45, 57 shortcomings of current measurement system, 7, 158, 162 workplace exposures, 58, 64, 130 See also Toxin exposure Environmental Protection Agency, 9, 98, 203, 208 Families composition, 70 data collection and analysis, 133–137 demographic factors, 68, 69–70 influence on children’s health, 68–69 learning environment, 72 parental mental health, 72–73 parental substance abuse, 73 process factors, 68, 71–73 See also Parent–child interaction Federal Education Right to Privacy Act, 177–178 Federal government data collection efforts, 92–100, 184, 186– 189 historical evolution of child protection policies, 29–30 recommendations for agencies and departments, 5–6, 9, 10, 11–12, 196– 197, 203, 204–205, 208–210 spending on children, 149 standardization of health data, 182 support for state and local data collection, 10, 204–206 Federal Interagency Forum in Child and Family Statistics, 98, 197 Fetal alcohol syndrome, 58 Fetal development. See Prenatal health Florida Children’s Registry and Information System, 173, 174 Fluoridation of drinking water, 87, 88 Folate, 51 Folic acid, 85 Forecasting, 3 Foster care, 153, 173 Foundation for Accountability, 151 Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study, 95–96 Functioning domain of health, 4, 35–37 inadequacies in children’s health data collection, 103, 199 measurement, 7, 8, 11–12, 113–114, 199, 201 Furan exposure, 121 Galactosemia, 120 Genetics, 45 behavior and, 48 disorders of, 47–48 ethics issues regarding genetic data, 181–182 gene expression biology, 50–51 influence on health, 20 interaction with environmental exposures, 48–51 screening, 121 susceptibility genes, 49, 120 Geographical variation current data collection, 17, 169–170, 185–186 recommendations for data collection, 8–9, 203–204 shortcomings of behavioral data collection, 129 Growth curve analysis, 210 Health care system assessing effectiveness of service delivery, 3, 25, 149–155, 194 community service system, 152–153 effectiveness of health services, 83–85, 87 evolution of children’s health services, 29– 32 goals for monitoring, 3, 151, 193–194 inappropriate interventions, 150 rationale for children’s health research, 21– 25, 192–193, 210 referrals from primary care to specialist, 154 research needs, 154–155 services for special populations, 153 shortcomings and accomplishments, 1–2, 13–16 types of health services for children, 85–87 Health conditions, 4, 34–35, 102–103 Health Employer Data Information System, 151–152 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 178 Health Interview Survey, 149 Health potential, 4, 35, 37 inadequacies in children’s health data collection, 103–104, 199 measurement, 7, 8, 12, 199, 201 Health-related behaviors, 53–54 access to care, 84

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Children’s Health, The Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health attitudes and beliefs as determinant of, 54, 55–56 cultural influences, 81–82 data collection and security, 179 Health Resources and Services Administration, 5, 94, 197 Healthy People 2010 initiative, 4, 37, 41, 98, 158–159, 170, 196 Hearing, 49 childhood noise exposure, 63 Hemoglobinopathies, 120 Huntington’s disease, 48 Hyperphenylalaninemia, 120 Hypothyroidism, 120 Immigrant paradox, 82 Immune function, hygiene theory of, 50 Immunization, 14, 29, 84–85 Infectious disease, 1–2 childhood risk, 62–63 current health measurement system, 92 food contaminants, 61–62 vector-borne, 62–63 water-borne disease, 59 Influences on children’s health, 20–21, 26 behavioral, 3–4, 45, 53–57 biological, 3–4, 45, 47–53 challenges in assessment and monitoring of, 116–118, 121–124, 127–128, 133, 135–136, 139–140, 143–144, 152–153, 160–161 conceptual model of health, 3–5, 37–38, 41–43, 45–47, 192, 195–196 cultural environment, 81–83, 142–146 definition of health and, 32 developmental, 23, 38–40, 41–43, 45–46 discrimination experience, 83, 146–149 electronic media, 78–81 family factors, 67–73, 133–137 health services delivery, 83–87, 149–155 interactions among, 4, 30–31, 40–41, 46, 47, 117, 147, 161, 195, 196, 200 limitations of research on, 46–47, 198–199 measurement system goals, 6, 16–17, 196 policy environment, 87–90 research needs, 90, 162–163, 200–201, 210 scope of, 45 See also Environmental factors Informed consent, 178–179 Insecticides. See Pesticides and insecticides Insurance, 88–89, 157 datasets, 98–99 Integrated measurement system, 104–106, 154–155, 165, 205–206 aggregated data systems, 167–170 confidentiality issues, 167, 172–173, 176– 178 defined, 165 future prospects, 166–167, 188–189 Internet access, 168–169 linked data systems, 170–175 rationale, 165–166 recommendations for, 11, 207–208 resource needs, 184 strategies, 167 International Classification of Diseases of Related Health Problems, 30, 35 International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, 103 International Classification of Primary Care, 103 International comparisons children’s health, 14, 15–16 health measurement, 159 Internet, 168–169, 189–191, 205 Intervention in children’s health access, 84 assessing effectiveness of service delivery, 149–155 compliance, 56 conceptual and clinical evolution, 30–31 early intervention services, 84, 155 effectiveness of health services, 83–85, 87 injury prevention, 65, 66–67 to prevent adult morbidity, 24 sociocultural differences, 25 spending, 149 types of, 85–87 Investigator-initiated surveys, 95–96, 126 Iron, 51–52 KIDS COUNT, 98, 170 KIDSNET, 173–174, 175 Language skills, 72 Law enforcement data, 169–170 Lead, 14, 51, 60–61 Life-style-related health conditions, 127 Linked data systems, 170–175, 176–178, 184 geocoding, 9, 203, 204

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Children’s Health, The Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health Low birthweight babies, 15–16 current health measurement system, 91 Lyme disease, 62 Maine Marks, 190 Mandated reporting, 92, 176 Mass media, 78–81 MassCHIP, 170, 172 Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 5, 94, 97–98, 100, 113, 155, 156–157, 186–187, 197, 205 Measurement system for children’s health assessing effectiveness of service delivery, 149–155 challenges in assessment and monitoring of health influences, 116–118, 121–124, 127–128, 133, 135–136, 139–140, 143–144, 146–148, 152–153, 160–161 conceptualization gaps, 106–107 coordination and linkage among studies, 96, 97 criteria for, 43–44 current system, 6–7, 26–27, 91–101, 193 definition of health in, 13–14, 19–20, 197– 198 developmental considerations, 39, 107, 108–109, 110–112, 113, 192, 199 domains of health, 33–37, 43 goals, 2–3, 114–115, 193–194, 198 historical development, 30, 31–32 international comparison, 159 methodological gaps, 107–110, 209, 210 opportunities for improving, 101–114, 162–163 rationale, 1, 2, 16–17, 21, 192–193, 210 recommendations, 9–12, 204–210 See also Data collection; Integrated measurement system Medicaid, 89, 149, 151, 157, 178, 182 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, 94, 157 Melanoma, 63 Meningitis, 85 Mental health, 2, 36 behavioral assessment, 128–129 discrimination experience and, 83 parental, 72–73 prevalence of disorders, 14 service delivery, 153 socioeconomic status and, 69 Mercury, 51 Minority populations current disparities in health care delivery, 15 data collection, 134, 142–146 discrimination, 82–83, 146–149 recommendations for children’s health measurement, 8, 200 See also Disadvantaged groups Monitoring the Future, 126 Monoamine oxidase, 49 Mortality automobile accident-related, 65 childhood, 64–65 community violence, 77 current health measurement system, 91 current patterns, 15 health care system performance to date, 1–2, 14–15 infant, 158 infectious disease, 62 injury-related, 15, 64–65 international comparisons, 15–16 socioeconomic status and, 69 workplace, 64 National Action Alliance, 184–185 National Center for Educational Statistics, 96 National Center for Environmental Health, 95 National Center for Health Statistics, 5–6, 92–94, 156–157, 166, 197, 205 National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, 134–135 National Children’s Study, 8, 96, 199, 201 National Committee on Quality Assurance, 151–152 National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics, 187, 207 National Electronic Disease Surveillance System, 187, 207 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 8, 93, 110, 113, 120, 121, 124, 125, 149, 199 National Health Information Infrastructure, 187–188 National Health Interview Survey, 8, 92, 93, 113, 125, 157, 199, 200 National Hospital Discharge Data Set, 99 National Household Education Surveys, 96 National Household Survey of Drug Use and Health, 94, 126 National Household Travel Survey, 132

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Children’s Health, The Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health National Immunization Survey, 93 National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, 6, 96, 197 National Institutes of Health, 6, 95, 197 National Labor Survey on Youth, 126 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, 95, 126, 139 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 149 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 134, 150 National Survey of Children’s Health, 95, 150 National Survey of Early Childhood Health, 94, 113, 134, 150 Nephron development, 52–53 No Child Left Behind Act, 182–183 Noise exposure, 63 Obesity, 2 electronic entertainments and, 79–80 prevalence, 14 Odor analysis, 124 Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 6, 197 Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 6, 98, 197 Otitis media, 84–85 Ozone, 67 Parent–child interaction adaptations in development, 54–55 attachment formation, 54–55, 71 child development and, 71 child health-related behaviors and, 54 data collection, 134 early programming concept, 53 influence on child’s health, 71 maternal substance abuse and, 73 parental depression and, 72–73 parental monitoring, 69 parenting styles, 71 See also Families Peer relations, 78, 139, 141–142 Perfect pitch, 49 Persistent organic pollutants, 121 Pesticides and insecticides, 59, 62, 121 Pets, 62–63 Phenylketonuria, 85 Phobias, 48 Phthalate metabolite, 121 Physical activity, 36 built environment and, 67, 131, 132 electronic entertainments and, 79–80 school physical education programs, 76 Phytoestrogens, 121 Playground injuries, 65 Policy development historical concepts of children and children’s health, 29–30 influence on children’s health, 87–90 integrated data systems for, 165–166, 167 measurement system goals, 3, 198 monitoring policy effects, 25, 155–162 to promote health-related behaviors, 53–54 risk assessment in, 161 role of data collection and analysis, 1, 16–17, 25–26, 117, 149–150 Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 121 Polychlorinated biphenyls, 51, 52, 121 Population subgroups age-related, 113 current health disparities among, 15 data collection and management, 167 health services for special populations, 153 opportunities for improving health measurement, 112–114, 144–146 origins and development of health disparities among, 8 profiles and integrative measures of health, 104 recommendations for children’s health measurement, 8, 200, 201–202 shortcomings of current health measurement system, 7, 46–47, 118, 142–144 sources of health disparities, 202, 209 types of, 202 vulnerable subpopulations, 112 See also Disadvantaged groups; Minority populations Pornography, 80 Pregnancy among unmarried women, 70 teenage, 14, 15 See also Prenatal health Prenatal health, 18, 45 early programming, 52–53 recommendations for data collection, 201 toxin exposures, 51–52, 58–59 Profiles of health, 104, 105–106 Project on Human Development in Chicago’s Neighborhoods, 138 Promoting Healthy Development Survey, 151

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Children’s Health, The Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health Protective factors behavioral, 53–54 environmental exposures, 51–52 genetic, 49 health potential conceptualization, 37 measurement, 114, 118 See also Influences on children’s health; Resilience factors Psychosocial functioning. See Mental health; Social functioning Public health departments, 166, 167, 206 Quality of care, 150–152 Quality of life, 105 Racial and ethnic minorities. See Minority populations Radiation exposure, 63 Radon, 63, 64, 130 Reading skills, 72 Referrals, from primary care to specialist, 154 Reliability of data collection methodology, 107–109 Religion and spirituality, 71–72 Report cards, 169–170, 171 Research access to health data, 9–10, 168–169, 178–180, 189–191, 203, 204, 205 rationale for children’s health research, 21–25, 192–193, 210 recommendations for, 3, 6, 11–12, 200–201, 208–210 See also Data collection Resilience factors, 37 cultural, 82–83 families as, 68–69 measurement, 104, 114 measurement system goals, 198 See also Protective factors Respiratory syncytial virus, 62 Risk factors behavioral, 53–54 behavioral assessment, 128–129 biomarkers of susceptibility, 120 cultural, 82–83 environmental exposures, 51–52 evaluation in policy development, 161 families as, 68–69 genetic, 48–49 health potential conceptualization, 37 parenting style, 71 socioeconomic status, 69–70, 74–75 See also Influences on children’s health Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 101, 173–174 Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 62 Safety, defined, 19 Schools and schooling, 64, 76, 78 child behavior data collection, 125–126, 127 confidentiality of education data, 177–178, 179 school readiness measures, 205–206 standardization of education data, 182–183 Score cards, 169–170, 171 Screening, newborn, 120 Sensitive periods, 39 early programming, 52–53 Sexual behavior media portrayals, 80 sexually transmitted disease, 92 teen pregnancy, 14, 15 Sickle cell trait, 49 Single-parent families, 70 Sleep disorders, 48 Social functioning, 36 behavioral adaptation in development, 55 community interaction and organization, 75, 77–78, 137–142 family influences on health, 68–73, 133–137 genetic factors in, 49 peer relations, 78, 139, 141–142 Social Security Act, 178 Socioeconomic status, 45 community characteristics, 74–75, 203 current health disparities, 15, 69 data collection, 133–134, 135–136, 137, 202, 203 influence on health, 69–70 opportunities for improving health measurement, 112 recommendations for children’s health measurement, 8 welfare policy, 90 See also Disadvantaged groups Special populations, 3 State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey, 94–95, 187, 188 State and local data collection access, 168–169 administrative structure, 10–11, 191, 206–207

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Children’s Health, The Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health aggregated data systems, 167–170 current efforts, 94, 100–101 ethics concerns, 176–182 federal support, 10, 184, 186–189, 204–206 geographically coded data, 185–186 interdepartmental coordination, 169–170, 173 opportunities for improving, 189–191 rationale, 16–17, 164–167 recommendations for, 3, 10–11, 204–208 resources for, 183–184 standardization and integration, 11, 182–183, 206, 207–208 See also Data collection State Child Health Insurance Program, 89, 98, 149, 157 Stress biological response, 54 for minority populations, 82–83 noise exposure and, 63 Sudden infant death syndrome, 85, 158 Sunlight, 63 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 133 Susceptibility biomarkers/genes, 49, 120 Teenage pregnancy, 14, 15 Television and video, 78–81 Thalidomide, 49–50 Title V programs, 166, 184 Tobacco, 58, 73 Toxin exposure, 45 air pollutants, 59, 67 biological response, 51 biomarkers, 118–119 biomonitoring programs, 120–121, 180–181 body stores, 51–52 chemical, 129–130, 209 child susceptibility, 59, 60–61 fetal development and, 51–52, 58–59 food contaminants, 61–62 gene-mediated response, 48–49 measurement challenges, 118–119, 123–124, 130 onset of effect, 118–119, 123 recommendations for research, 9, 203, 209 water pollutants, 59–61 Traditional healing practices, 25, 82 Trauma exposure community violence, 77 gene-mediated response, 48 witnesses to violence, 138–139, 140 Trends in the Well-Being of America’s Children, 98 Ultraviolet radiation, 63, 130 Validity of data collection methodology, 107–109 Vector-borne disease, 62–63 Violence challenges in assessing health effects of exposure to, 140, 141 community characteristics, 77, 138–139 in electronic media, 79 sexual, 80 See also Aggressive behavior Viruses, 59, 62 Vitamin A, 52 Volatile organic compounds, 121 Water quality, 58–61 Welfare policy, 90 Well-being data collection, 98 defined, 19–20 Workplace exposures, 58, 64, 130 World Health Organization, 30, 31 Young Adult Heath Care Survey, 151 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 94, 125–126