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Tables TABLE 1 Nutrient and Energy Requiremenls of Mink: Percentage or Amount per Kilogram of Dry Mattera Growth Weaning to 13 Weeks to Maintenance Constituent 13 Weeks Maturity (Mature) Gestation Lactation Energy males kcal MEb4080 4080 3600 - - females kcal ME3930 3930 3600 3930 4500 Crude protein So38c 32.6-38.0 21.8-26.0 38 45.7 Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamin A IU5930 d d d d Vitamin E mg27 d d d d Water-soluble vitamins Thiamine mg1.3 d d d d Riboflavin mg1.6 d d d d Pantothenic acid mg8.0 d d d d Vitamin Be mg1.6 d d d d Niacin mg20.0 d d d d Folic acid mgo.5e d d d d Biotin mg0.12 d d d d Vitamin B12 32.6 d d d d Minerals Calcium %0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.6 Phosphorus %0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.6 Ca:P ratio 1:1 to 2:1 1:1 to 2:1 1:1 to 2:1 1:1 to 2:1 1:1 to 2.1 Salt %0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 a Nutrient requirements are based on an energy level of 5300 kcal E, or 4080 kcal ME. Nutrient requirements will increase with higher ME levels and decrease with lower ME levels. bSee Table 9 for methods of calculation. CBased on average quality protein with calculated digestibility of 83 percent. Higher-quality protein and higher digestibility will decrease the requirement, and lower-quality protein and lower digestibility will increase the requirement. dQuantitative requirement not determined, but dietary need demonstrated. eMay not be minimum, but known to be adequate. 33

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34 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes TABLE 2 Nutrient and Energy Requirements of Mink: Daily Amounts Growth Weaning to 13 Weeks to Maintenance Constituent 13 Weeks Maturity (Mature) Gestation Lactation Energy males kcal ME/kg BW 275-330 250-140 140 - - females kcal ME/kg BW 280-355 280-150 140 200 200-500 Amount per 100 keel metabolizable energy a: Digestible protein kcal MEb 35 30' 35 20-24 35 42 Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamin A IU 145 d d d d Vitamin E mg 0.66 d d d d Water-soluble vitamins Thiamine mg 0.033 d d ~d Riboflavin mg 0.04 d d d d Pantothenic acid mg 0.2 d d d d Vitamin B6 mg 0.04 d d d d Niacin mg 0.5 d d d d Colic acid ,ug 13.0C d d d d Biotin ,ug 3.0 d d d d Vitamin B12 0.8 d d d d a When original data were not presented on the basis of ME, requirements were calculated according to the following formula (ME = 0.77 E). bSee Table 9 for methods of calculation. c May not be minimum, but known to be adequate. dQuantitative requirement not determined, but dietary need demonstrated. TABLE 3 Nutrient and Energy Requirements of Foxes: Percentage or Amount per Kilogram of Dry Mattera Growth 7 to 23 23 Weeks to Constituent Weeks Maturity Maintenance Pregnancy Lactation Energy kcal E 3227 Crude protein % 27.6-29.6b 24.7 19.7 29.6 35.0 Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamin A IU 2440 2440 Water-soluble vitamins Thiamine ,ug 1.0 1~0 e e e Riboflavin mg 3 7c 3 7c e 5 5d is Ad Pantothenic acid mg 7 4c 7 4c e e e vitamin B6 1 go 1 go e e e Niacin mg 9~6C 9~6C e e e Folic acid ,ug 0 2c o.2c e e e Minerals Calcium % 0.6 0.6 0.6 e e Phosphorus % 0.6 0.6 0 4 e e Ca:P ratio 1.0:1.0 to 1.0:1.0 to 1.0:1.0 to I.7:1.0 1.7:1.0 1.7:1.0 Salt % 0 5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 a Nutrient requirements are based on an energy level of 3700 kcal ME. Nutrient requirements will increase with higher ME levels and decrease with lower ME levels. bBased on average quality protein with calculated digestibility of 83 percent. Higher-quality protein and higher digestibility will decrease the requirement, and lower-quality protein and lower digestibility will increase the requirement. c May not be minimum, but known to be adequate. dBlue fox. e Quantitative requirement not determined, but dietary need demonstrated.

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Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes 35 TABLE 4 Nutrient Requirements of Silver Foxes: Amount per 100 kcal Metabolizable Energya Growth 7 to 23 23 Weeks to Maintenance Nutrient Weeks Maturity (Mature) Gestation Lactation Digestible protein kcalb 28-30 25 22 30 35 Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamin A IU 66 66 d d d Water-soluble vitamins Thiamine ,ug 27 27 d d d Riboflavin mg 0.1 0.1 o. 15 e 0.15 e Pantothenic acid mg o.2c o.2c d d d Vitamin B6 5oc 5oc d d d Niacin mg 0.26 0.26 d d d Folic acid ,ug 5.2c 5.2c d d d a When original data were not presented on the basis of ME, requirements were calculated according to the following formula (ME = 0.8 E). bSee Table 9 for methods of calculation. C May not be minimum, but known to be adequate. dQuantitative requirement not determined, but dietary need demonstrated. e Blue fox.

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36 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes TABLE 5 Average Daily Requirements for Metabolizable Energy (ME) and Dry Feed for Growth of Mink Age (Weeks) 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 Male Body weighs a g 630 930 1240 1520173019002040216022602330235023802380 ME daily b kcal 173 307 394 445435439441436387336323284278 Daily dry feed containing: 3500 kcal ME/kg g 49 88 113 12712412512612511196928179 4000 kcal ME/kg g 43 77 99 1111091101101099784817170 4500 kcal ME/kg g 38 68 88 99979898978675726362 Female Body weighta g 450 650 810 930103011101180124012801320132513201300 ME Dailyb kcal 126 231 284 323289273260266260231210197196 Daily dry feed containing: 3500 kcal ME/kg g 36 66 81 92837874767466605656 4000 kcal ME/kg g 32 58 71 81726865676558534949 4500 kcal ME/kg g 28 51 63 72646158595851474444 aAverage body weights of animals reared on Oregon State University (OSU) stock diet, reported by Oldfield et al. (1971). b Calculated from average daily intakes of OSU diet, reported by Oldfield et al. (1978). The OSU diet had a calculated E content of 5790 kcal/kg dry matter and a calculated ME content of 4410 kcal/kg dry matter. (The ME calculation employed: (1) the specific digestibility coefficients reported by Glem-Hansen and Joergensen (1978) for the proximate constituents of similar diet ingredients, and (2) the values of 4.0, 9.5, and 4.5 kcal ME/g of digested carbohydrate, fat and protein, respec- tively (Glem-Hansen, 1978). The calculated ME in this instance is 76.2 percent of the calculated E.) TABLE 6 Average Daily Requirements for Metabolizable Energy (ME) and Dry Feed for Growth of Silver Foxes a Age (Weeks) 7 11 1519 2327 3135 Male Body weightb kg 1.45 2.5 3.6 4.4 5.1 5.75 6.25 6.5 ME daily C kcal 276 450 540 616 638 575 500 488 Daily dry feed containing: 2800 kcal ME/kg g 99 161 193 220 228 205 179 174 3400 kcal ME/kg g 81 132 159 181 188 169 147 144 4000 kcal ME/kg g 69 113 135 154 160 144 125 122 Female Body weightb kg 1.35 2.3 3.25 3.95 4.6 5.1 5.4 5.5 ME daily C kcal 257 414 488 553 575 510 432 413 Daily dry feed containing: 2800 kcal ME/kg g 92 148 174 198 205 182 154 148 3400 kcal ME/kg g 76 122 144 163 169 150 127 121 4000 kcal ME/kg g 64 104 122 138 144 128 108 103 a Data from H. Rimeslatten. bAverage body weights (Rimeslatten, 1978) as shown in growth curves for silver foxes (Figure 3). CCalculated from body weights using age-specific allowances per kilogram derived, by interpolation, from allowances of Perel dik (cited in text, page 25).

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Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes 37 TABLE 7 Formulas and Examples for Calculating TABLE 7-Continued Composition of Diets and Adjusting for Moisture Content a. Proximate Composition Data Used in Illustrative Calculations Composition (%) Dry Matter Protein 90 15 35 18 30 15 Ingredients Fortified cereal Whole chicken Tripe Chicken heads- entrails Fish scrap 28 24 16 15 As 5 6 12 4 12 2 8 3 3 5 b. Example Calculations-Proximate Composition of a Diet T - ~^A;Q - ~O ~ ~11~+ Fortified cereal Whole chicken no . 1 ripe Chicken heads-entrails Scrap fish Rendered fat Water addition TOTALS 20 20 20 20 20 2 20 122 . ~ Grams Contributed to Total Diet Containing 122 Grams Feedstuffs Dry Matter Protein Fat Ash 18.0 3.0 1.0 1.2 7.0 3.6 2.4 0.8 6.0 3.0 2.4 0.4 5.6 3.2 1.6 0.6 4.8 3.0 0.6 1.0 2.0 - 2.0 43.4 15.8 10.0 4.0 c. Example Calculation of Dry Nutrients on Wet Weight Basis Grams Protein x 100 15 8 x 100 % Fat = GramS Fat x 100 Total Grams Feed Grams Ash x 100 Total Grams Feed = 10.0 x100 = 8.2% = 4.0 x 100 = 3.3% d. Example Conversion of Nutrients on Wet Weight Basis to Dry Weight Basis % P t i Grams Protein x 100 15.8 x 100 36 4% Total Grams Dry Matter 43.4 % Fat Grams Fat x 100 10.0 x 100 23 0% So Ash - Grams Ash x 100 _ 4.0 x 100 Total Grams Dry Matter 43.4 e. Dry Feed to % Wet Feed % Protein Dry Weight % Protein _ x Total Grams Dry Matter Wet Weight Grams Total Feed % Protein = 36.4 x 43.4 = 13 0% Wet Weight 122 % Fat Dry Weight To Fat x Total Grams Dry Matter Wet Weight Grams Total Feed % Fat 23.0 x 43 4 = 8 2% Wet Weight 122 % Ash Dry Weight % Ash x Total Grams Dry Matter Wet Weight Grams Total Feed % Ash 9.2 x 43 4 _ 3 3 Wet Weight 122 = 9.2% f. % Wet Feed to % Dry Feed % Protein _ % Protein Wet Feed x Grams Total Feed Dry Feed Grams Dry Matter % Protein 13.0 x 122 36 4 % Dry Feed 43.4 % Fat _ % Fat Wet Feed x Grams Total Feed Dry Feed Grams Dry Matter % Fat 8.2 x 122 23 0% Dry Feed 43.4 % Ash Dry Feed % Ash Wet Feed x Grams Total Feed Grams Dry Matter % Ash 3.3 x 122 9 2 % Dry Feed 43.4 TABLE 8 Formulas and Examples for Calculating Grossa and Digestible Energyb Proximate Analysis Source Percent Protein 36.4 Fat 23.0 Ash 9.2 Carbohydrate C 31.4 TOTAL 100 E (kcal) 36.4 x 5.7 = 207 23.0 x 9.5 = 219 O O 31.4 x 4.0 = 126 552 DE (kcal) 207 x 0.8sd= 176 219 x o.9od= 197 O O 126 x 0.7sd= 94 467 a Gross energy (E) = g nutrient per 100 g dry matter x kcal per gram = 552 kcal per 100 g dry matter. b Digestible energy (DE) = E (kcal) x digestibility coefficient = 467 kcal per 100 g dry matter C Carbohydrate may be calculated as follows: 100% minus (% protein + % fat + TO ash) = % carbohydrate. d arbitrarily assigned digestibility coefficients.

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38 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes TABLE 9 Formulas and Examples for Calculating Metabolizable Energya and Percent MEb TABLE 10 Suggested Ranges of Composition of Practical Diets for Mink Proximate Analysis Ingredients Percent Source Percent Nutrients (g) Metabolizable Energy (kcal) Protein Fat Ash Carbohydrate TOTAL 36.4 x .85C = 30.9 23.0 x .9oc= 20.7 36.4 23.0 9.2 31.4e 31.4 x75C = 23.6 100 75.2 30.9 x 4.5 d = 139 20.7x9.5d= 197 O O 23.6x4.0d= 94 430 a Metabolizable energy (ME) = total grams of each nutrient per 100 g dry matter x digestibility coefficient x ME (kcal)/g = 430 kcal per 100 g dry matter. b ME from protein = ME from protein x 100 % ME from fat = Total ME 139 x 100 = 32.3 To . ME from [at x 100 = 197 x 100 = 45.8 % . % ME from carbohydrate = ME from carbohydrate x 100 Total ME = 94 x LOO = 21.9 % . C Arbitrarily assigned digestibility coefficients. dMetabolizable energy per gram is 4.5 kcal for protein, 9.5 kcal for fat, and 4.0 kcal for carbohydrates. e % Carbohydrate = 100 No (total dry matter) minus ( % protein + % fat + % ash). Fortified cereala Liver Quality protein foodstuffs Cooked eggs, whole poultry, whole fish, horsemeat, rabbits, nutria, etc. Beef by-products Tripe, lungs, lips, udders spleen, etc. Poultry by-products Heads, entrails, feet Fish scrap Fat supplementation Rendered animal fat or vegetable oils Proximate analysts e of diet Protein Fat Carbohydrate Ash 15-30 0-10 b o-3o c 10-30 0-70 0-50 o-6d Percent 2s-40 18-30 20-s0 6-12 a May consist of single-cooked grains such as oat groats or wheat in combina tion with vitamin and trace mineral supplementation or commercially pre pared fortified cereal mixtures. b Reproduction-Lactation diets (March-May) often contain 5-10 percent beef liver, although necessity for this has not universally been accepted. C Level of quality-protein feedstuffs is often increased during the critical fur development and reproduction-lactation phases-a practice consistent with the higher protein requirements of the mink during these critical periods. d that level of fat supplementation that provides proper protein/energy bal ance for each phase of the life cycle. e that proximate analysis consistent with the optimum nutritional balance for each phase of the life cycle.

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Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes 39 TABLE 11 Suggested Ranges of Composition of Practical Diets for Foxes Ingredients Percent Fortified cereala Liver Quality proteins C Cooked eggs, whole poultry, whole fish, horsemeat, rabbits, nutria, blood, etc. Beef by-products Tripe, lungs, lips, udders, spleen, etc. Poultry by-products Heads, entrails, feet Fish scrap Fishmeal Fat supplementation Rendered animal fat or vegetable oils Proximate analysts e Protein Fat Carbohydrates Ash 25-50 0-10 b 5-30 10-20 0-50 0-so 5-15 0-10 d Percent 20-30 15-30 25-60 5-15 aMay consist of single-cooked grains such as oat groats or wheat in combina tion with vitamin and trace mineral supplementation or commercially pre pared fortified cereal mixtures. b Reproduction-Lactation diets (March-May) often contain 5-10 percent beef liver, although necessity for this has not universally been accepted. C Level of quality-protein feedstuffs is often increased during the critical fur development and reproduction-lactation phases-a practice consistent with the higher protein requirements of the foxes during these critical periods. dA level of fat supplementation that provides proper protein/energy balance for each phase of the life cycle. eA proximate analysis consistent with the optimum nutritional balance for each phase of the life cycle.

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40 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes TABLE 12 Composition of Important Fur Animal Feeds. Data Expressed As-Fed and Dry (100% Dry Matter) Nitrogen Interna- Crude Dig. Ether FreeCop Entry tional Dry ME Pro- Pro- Crude Ex- Ex- Cal- Chlo- per Num- Common Name Feed Matter (kcal/ tein teinFiber tract tract Ash cium rine (mg/ her Scientific Name Number a (%) kg) (%) (%) (%) (% ) (%) (%) (%) (%) kg) A L F. A L F. A M e d i c a g o s a t i v a 001 meal dehydrated, 17% 1-00-023 92. 963. 17.3 8.6 24.0 2.7 37.9 9.7 1.40 .47 10. 002 protein 100. 1050. 18.9 9.4 26.2 3.0 41.3 10.6 1.52 .52 11. 003 meal dehydrated, 20% 1-00-024 92. 1035. 20.2 10.1 20.6 3.3 37.2 10.4 1.59 .47 11. 004 protein 100. 1130. 22.0 11.0 22.5 3.7 40.6 11.3 1.74 .51 12. APPLE Males spp 005 pomace oat hulls added, 4-28-096 89. 900. 4.6 1.7 17.8 4.7 61.2 3.1 .11 - - 006 dehydrated 100. 1010. 5.1 1.9 20.0 5.2 68.7 3.5 .13 - - BAKERY 007 waste, dehydrated (Dried 4-00-466 92. 3399. 9.8 8.4 1.2 11.7 65.2 4.0 .13 1.48 5. 008 bakery product) 100. 3700. 10.7 9.1 1.3 12.7 70.9 4.4 .14 1.61 5. BARLEY Hordeum vulgare 009 grain 4-00-549 88. 1844. 11.9 8.2 5.0 1.9 67.0 2.3 .04 .16 8. 010 100. 2090. 13.5 9.3 5.7 2.1 76.0 2.6 .05 .18 9. 011 grain, boiled 4-00-524 85. 1930. 9.5 6.3 6.6 .8 65.8 2.2 012 100. 2270. 11.2 7.4 7.8 .9 77.4 2.6 - - - 013 grain, Pacific Coast 4-07-939 89. 1801. 9.6 6.6 6.3 1.8 68.8 2.7 .05 .15 8. 014 100. 2020. 10.8 7.4 7.1 2.0 77.1 3.1 .06 .17 9. 015 malt sprouts, dehydrated 5-00-545 94. 1490. 26.3 18.7 15.0 1.3 44.5 6.6 .21 .36 016 100. 1590. 28.1 20.0 16.0 1.4 47.5 7.0 .23 .39 - BEET, SUGAR Beta vulgaris alti~ma 017 pulp, dehydrated 4-00-669 91. 752. 8.8 3.4 18.0 .5 58.5 4.9 .63 .04 12. 018 100. 830. 9.7 3.7 19.8 .6 64.5 5.4 .69 .04 14. BLOOD 019 meal spray dehydrated 5-00-381 93. - 86.5 - 1.0 1.3 1.5 6.6 .48 .25 8. 020 (Blood flour) 100. - 93.0 - 1.1 1.4 1.6 7.1 .52 .27 9. BREWERS 021 grains, dehydrated 5-02-141 92. 2762. 27.1 19.0 13.2 6.6 41.5 3.6 .30 .15 21. 022 100. 3000. 29.4 20.6 14.4 7.2 45.1 3.9 .33 .17 23. 023 grains, wet 5-02-142 21. 632. 4.9 4.2 3.2 1.4 10.6 1.0 .07 .04 5. 024 100. 3000. 23.2 19.7 15.3 6.5 50.2 4.8 .33 .17 23. BUTTERMILK 025 dehydrated (Cattle) 5-01-160 92. 3212. 31.7 28.6 .3 4.7 46.4 9.1 1.33 .40 1. 026 100. 3480. 34.4 31.0 .4 5.0 50.3 9.9 1.44 .4.3 1 CASEIN Bos taurus 027 dehydrated 5-01-162 91. 3615. 84.0 76.5 .2 .6 3.6 2.2 .61 - 4. 028 100. 3990. 92.7 84.4 .2 .7 3.9 2.4 .67 - 4. CATTLE Bos taurus 029 cheese, cottage 5-08-001 21. 802. 17.0 15.3 - .3 2.7 1.0 .09 030 100. 3820. 81.0 72.9 - 1.4 12.9 4.8 .43 - - 031 lips, fresh 5-07-940 30. 1290. 18.0 15.3 - 7.0 - - - - - 032 100. 4300. 60.0 51.0 - 23.3 - - - - - 033 livers, fresh 5-01-166 28. 1292. 19.5 17.3 .2 5.1 1.9 1.4 .01 - 6. 034 100. 4620. 69.6 61.9 .6 18.3 6.7 4.9 .04 - 22. 035 lungs, fresh 5-07-941 21. 1472. 13.9 14.7 .6 8.3 - .8 .01 - 1. 036 100. 6900. 65.0 68.7 2.9 38.9 - 3.8 .06 - 5. 037 spleens, fresh 5-07-942 24. 1019. 16.5 14.1 1.0 3.9 1.3 1.5 .01 038 100. 4230. 68.7 58.4 4.0 16.1 5.3 6.0 .02 - 1. 039 udders, fresh 5-07-943 20. 1007. 11.9 10.1 .3 6.1 .6 1.5 .53 - 1. 040 100. 4960. 58.6 49.8 1.2 30.0 2.7 7.4 2.62 - ~ aFirst digit is class of feed: l, dry forages and roughages; 2, pasture, range plants, and forages fed green; 3, silages; 4, energy feeds; 5, protein supplements; 6, minerals; 7, vitamins; 8, additives; the other five digits are the International Feed Number.

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Nutrient Requ~rements of Mink and Foxes 41 Folic Acid Panto Io- Man- Bio- Cho-(Fola- Nia-thenic Vitamin Ribo Entry dine Iron Mag- ganese Phos- So- Sul- Zinc tin line cin) cin AcidB6 flavin Num- (mgl img/ nesium (mg/ phorus dium fur (mgl (mgl (mgl (mgl (mgl (mgl (mgl (mgl ber kg) kg) ~ 70 ' ~kg) ~ ~ ~ % ~ % ~kg) kg) kg) kg) kg) kg) kg) kg) 001 .15 405. .29 31. .23 .10 .22 19. .33 1370. 4.4 37. 29.8 7.1 12.9 002 .16 441. .32 34. .2s .11 .24 21. .36 1494. 4.8 40. 32.4 7.7 14.1 003 .14 380. .33 36. .28 .12 .27 20. .3s 1418. 3.0 48. 3s.s 8.8 15.2 004 .15 415. .36 39. .30 .14 .29 22. .39 1547. 3.2 s2. 38.8 9.6 16.6 408 - 266. .06 7. .10 .12 .02 006 - 299. .07 8. .12 .14 .02 007 - 28. .24 6s. .24 1.14 .02 15. .07 923. .2 26. 8.3 4.3 1.4 008 - 31. .26 71. .26 1.24 .02 16. .07 1005. .2 28. 9.0 4.7 1.5 009 .o ~7s. .14 16. .34 .03 .15 17. .15 1039. .6 83. 8.1 6.4 1.6 010 .os 8s. .15 18. .38 .03 .17 19. .17 1177. .6 94. 9.1 7.3 1.8 011 - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 012 _ _ _ _ 013 - 87. .12 16. .34 .02 .14 15. .15 982. .s 47. 7.1 2.9 1.5 014 - 97. .14 18. .39 .02 .16 17. .17 1102. .6 s3. 8.0 3.3 1.7 015 - - .18 32. .71 1.18 .80 - 4.12 1606. .2 51. 8.9 9.s 3.0 016 - - .20 34. .7s 1.26 .8s - 4.40 1713. .2 s4. 9.s 10.2 3.2 017 - 299. .24 3s. .os .19 .20 1. - 818. - 17. 1.3 - .7 018 - 329. .27 38. .10 .21 .22 1. - 902. - 18. 1.5 - .8 019 - 2784. .22 6. .24 .39 .34 - .28 600. .4 22. 3.2 4.s 2.9 020 - 2993. .24 7. .26 .42 .37 - .30 64s. .4 24. 3.s 4.8 3.1 021 .07 24s. .15 37. .51 .21 .30 27. .63 1617. 7.1 43. 8.2 .7 1.4 022 .07 266. .16 40. .ss .23 .32 30. .68 1757. 7.7 47. 8.9 .8 1.6 023 .02 s6. .03 9. .12 .0s .07 6. - - - - - - - 024 .07 266. .16 40. .ss .23 .32 30. - - - - - - - 02s - 8. .48 3. .94 .83 .08 40. .29 1746. .4 9. 37.0 2.4 30.6 026 - 9. .s2 4. 1.01 .90 .09 44. .31 1891. .4 9. 40.1 2.6 33.1 027 - 14. .01 4. .82 .01 - 27. .04 208. .s 1. 2.7 .4 1.5 028 - 15. .01 s. .90 .01 - 30. .os 229. .s 1. 2.9 .s 1.7 029 - 4. - - .18 .29 .29 - - - - 1. - - 2.8 030 - 19. - - .8s 1.38 1.38 - - - - s. - - 13.3 031 - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 032 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 033 - 46. .01 3. .23 .10 - 27. .98 1424. 2.3 7s. 46.1 s.o 2s.8 034 - 165. .04 10. .82 .3s - 9s. 3.51 sos3. 8.4 269. 164.9 18.0 92.2 03s .07 69. .01 - .15 .15 - 12. .03 1693. .2 11. .s .4 1.8 036 .31 322. .03 1. .69 .69 - ss. .12 7933. .9 49. 2.6 1.8 8.4 037 .18 407. .01 - .27 .14 - 19. .04 491. 1.2 6. 2.0 .3 3.7 038 .76 1691. .os - 1.13 .s8 - 81. .16 2036. 4.8 2s. 8.2 1.3 15.3 039 - 21. .02 1. .28 .12 - 21. .06 877. .1 21. 9.s 1.4 3.0 040 - 102. .08 3. 1.37 .s8 - 104. .30 4320. .3 102. 46.7 6.8 14.6

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42 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes TABLE 12 Composition of Important Fur Animal Feeds. Data Expressed As-Fed and Dry (100 So Dry Matter) Continued Nitrogen Interna- Crude Dig. Ether FreeCop Entry tional Dry ME Pro- Pro- Crude Ex- Ex- Cal- Chlo- per Num- Common Name Feed Matter (kcal/ tein teinFiber tract tractAsh cium rine (mg/ her Scientific Name Number a ( To ) kg) ( % j ( % ) ( % ) ( To ) ( To ) ( To ) ( To ) ( % ) kg) CEREALS 041 distillers grains, dehydrated 5-02-144 93. 3036. 27.3 23.2 12.8 7.4 43.5 1.5 .14 .05 48. 042 100. 3280. 29.5 25.1 13.8 8.0 47.0 1.7 .15 .06 52. CHICKEN Callus domesticus 043 by-product, fresh (Viscera 5-07-951 44. 2137. 21.1 18.0 - 15.8 3.4 5.4 044 with feet with heads) 100. 4890. 48.3 41.1 - 36.1 7.7 12.4 - - - 045 broilers, whole, fresh 5-07-945 24. 1145. 18.5 15.7 - 4.9 - .8 .01 046 100. 4740. 76.5 65.0 - 20.2 - 3.3 .04 - - 047 eggs with shells, fresh 5-01-213 43. 1518. 9.6 8.2 5.8 6.2 19.9 1.5 9.55 048 100. 3530. 22.4 19.0 13.5 14.4 46.3 3.4 22.20 - - 049 feet, fresh 5-07-947 33. 1073. 17.7 9.2 - 7.5 - 5.4 2.10 - 1. 050 100. 3300. 54.5 28.3 - 23.1 - 16.6 6.45 - 2. 051 gizzards, fresh 5-07-948 25. 1025. 20.1 17.1 - 2.7 .7 1.5 .01 052 100. 4100. 80.4 68.3 - 10.8 2.8 6.0 .04 - - 053 heads, fresh 5-07-949 33. 1188. 19.0 14.8 - 6.0 054 100. 3600. 57.6 44.9 - 18.2 - - - - - OSS hens, carcass, fresh 5-08-095 33. 1791. 19.6 16.7 - 11.9 - 1.0 .01 056 100. 5510. 60.3 51.3 - 36.6 - 3.1 .04 - - 057 hens, whole, fresh 5-07-950 33. 1742. 19.9 16.9 .5 7.9 9.3 1.0 .01 058 100. 5280. 60.3 51.3 1.5 24.) 28.2 3.1 .03 - - 059 viscera with heads, fresh 5-07-952 34. 1796. 14.6 12.4 .2 14.] 2.9 1.0 .34 060 100. 5360. 43.7 37.1 .7 42.2 8.7 3.1 1.00 - - 061 whole, fresh, day old 5-07-946 13. 582. 7.4 6.3 - 3.4 .2 .8 062 100. 4550. 57.9 49.2 - 26.3 1.6 6.1 - - - CORN, DENT YELLOW Zea mays indentata 063 distillers grains, dehydrated 5-28-235 94. - 21.5 - 11.3 9.2 42.9 2.3 .10 .07 45. 064 100. - 23.0 - 12.] 9.8 45.9 ~2.4 .11 .08 48. 065 distillers grains faith 5-28-236 92. - 23.0 - 9.1 9.4 41.8 4.4 .14 .17 53. 066 solubles, dehydrated 100. - 25.0 - 9.9 10.3 45.5 4.8 .15 .18 58. 067 distillers solubles, dehy- 5-28-237 93. - 27.6 - 4.6 8.6 44.8 7.2 ,33 ,26 83. 068 crated 100. - 29.7 - 5.0 9.2 48.3 7.8 .35 .28 89. 069 germs, meal wet milled 5-28-240 91. - 20.4 - 12.0 3.7 51.3 3.8 .04 .04 4. 070 solvent extracted 100. - 22.3 - 13.1 4.1 56.3 4.2 .04 .04 5. 071 gluten, meal 5-28-241 91. - 42.7 - 4.4 2.2 38.8 3.1 .15 .06 28. 072 100. - 46,8 - 4.8 2.4 42.5 3.4 .16 .07 30. 073 grain 4-02-935 89. 2197. 9.6 7.4 2.6 3.8 71.2 1.3 .03 .04 4. 074 100. 2480. 10.9 8.4 2.9 4.3 80.4 1.5 .03 .05 4. 075 grain, boiled dehydrated 4-02-853 88. 2671. 9~.3 6.5 1.6 4.6 70.9 1.9 - - - 076 100. 3030. 10.5 7.4 1.8 5.2 80.4 2.1 - - - 077 grain, flaked 4-28-244 89. - 9.9 - .6 2.0 75.4 .9 - - - 078 100. - 11.2 - ,7 2.2 84.9 1.0 - - - COTTON Gossypium spp 079 seeds, meal prepressed sol- 5-07-873 91. 2713. 44.7 38.0 11.1 1.6 28.0 6.1 ,l5 080 vent extracted, 44% 100. 2970. 48.9 41.6 12.1 1.7 30.6 6.-7 .17 protein 081 seeds, meal solvent ex- 5-01-621 91. 2627, 41.2 35.() 12.1 1.4 29.9 6.5 .17 .05 20. 082 tracted, 41% protein 100. 2880. 45.2 38.4 13.3 1.6 32.8 7,1 .18 .05 22. a First digit is class of feed: 1, dry forages and roughages; 2, pasture, range plants, and forages fed green: 3, silages: 4, energy feeds; 5, protein supplements; 6, minerals; 7, Vitamins; 8, additives; the other five digits are the International Feed Number.

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Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes 43 Folic Acid Panto Io- Man- Bio- Cho-(Fola- Nia- thenic Vitamin Ribo Entry dine Iron Mag- ganese Phos- So- Sul- Zinc tin line cin) cin Acid B6 flavin Num- (mg/ (mgl nesium (mg/ phorus dium fur (mg/ (mgl (mgl (mgl (mgl (mgl (mgl (mgl ber kg) kg) ~ % ~kg) ~ c~O ~ c%O ~ % ~kg) kg) kg) kg) kg) kg) kg) kg) 041 - 263. .os 3s. .s4 .05 .46 - - 2392. .2 46. 11.3 s.6 6.6 042 - 284. .10 38. .s8 .0s .49 - - 2s84. .2 49. 12.2 6.0 7. 043 - - - - - - - - - - 044 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 04s - 20. - - .20 - - - - - - s6. - - 3.8 046 - 81. - - .82 - - - - - - 230. - - 15.6 047 - - - - .14 - - - - - - - - - - 048 _ _ _ _ ,33 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 049 .~2 31. .03 1. .7~6 .12 - 16. .03 170. ,8 38. 4. ~.6 .9 ~oso .37 96. .10 2. 2.33 .38 - 49. .08 s23. 2.4 1~7. 12.6 1.9 2.8 051 - 29. - - .11 .07 - - - - - 4s. - - 2,0 0s2 - 116. - - ,42 ,26 - - - - - 180, - - 8,0 0s3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0s4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - oss - 17, - - .19 - - - - - - 73. - - 2.1 0s6 - s2. - - .60 - - - - - - 22s. - - 6.s 0s7 - - .07 - .19 .27 - - ,15 207s. .2 74. 6.7 1,5 2,1 0s8 - - ,22 - .ss .83 - - .46 6288. .s 22s. 20.4 4.6 6.4 oss - - - - .24 - - - - - - - - - - 060 - - - - .70 - - - - - - - - - - 061 - - - - - - 062 - _ _ _ _ _ c)63 .04 209. ,07 22. .40 .os .43 33. .49 1180. .9 37. 11.7 4.4 s.2 064 .os 223, .07 23. .43 .10 .46 3s. .s2 1262. .9 40. 12.5 4,7 s.6 06s - 237. .16 23. .6s .s3 .31 80. .78 2s74. .9 73. 14.0 s.o 9.1 066 - 259. .18 2s. .71 .s7 .33 87. .8s 2803. 1.0 79. 15.3 s.4 10.0 ~067 .11 s66. .60 74. 1.27 .23 .37 8s. 1.66 4778. 1.3 124. 23.3 8.8 21.1 068 .12 610. .6s 80. 1.37 .2s .40 92. 1.79 5151. 1.4 134. 25.2 9.s 22.7 069 - 337. .31 4. ,43 .07 .30 104. .22 1627. .2 30. 4.2 6.2 3.9 070 - 370. .34 4. ,47 .08 .33 114. .24 1785. .2 33. 4.6 6.8 4.2 071 - ,386. .06 8. .4s .os ,3s i74. .18 3s7. .3 51. 10.2 8.0 1.6 072 - 423. .06 8. .so .10 .39 190. .20 391. .3 ss. 11.2 8.8 1.8 073 - 27. .12 s. .26 .03 .11 13. .07 s02. .3 2s. s.9 4.7 1.2 074 - 30. .14 s. .29 .03 .12 14. .08 s67. .3 28. 6.6 s.3 1.4 07s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 076 - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 077 _ _ _ _ _ _ 078 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 079 080 .91 - - - - 268s. .9 46. 14.5 - 4.7 :~.0o - - - ~2939 ~1.0 51. 15.9 - 5.1 08i - 208. .54 21. 1.10 .04 .26 62. .97 2787. 1.4 41. 13.7 s.6 4.8 082 - 228. .ss 23. 1,21 ,05 ,28 68, 1.06 3056, 1.5 4s. 15.0 6.2 s.2

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56 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes _` so cat o - 'cat cat m L. cat 1 cat ce o cat cat - ct = o O cry - o o .~ cq o o ~3 c' o ._ cry Am _ _ ct ~ _ 0 ^= ~ =_ E-. ~ ~ CQ ._ _ ,- ~ _ E' ~ ~ v, _ ~ .= P~ ct _ c~ ~ _ c' ~ ~ _ _ ,~ ._ ~ 0 _ , ~ - - i c~ ~ ~ ~ _ c~ c: ~ 03 c~ _ , ~ _ c, _ ., ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ._ _ ~ ~ ~ c~ c~ _ _ C ;^ ct ~ o~ ~ z o - ct ~7 ~ z~ 00 CO ~ CO C~ CO ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ ~O ~CO ~_ ~=1 0 - O O ~C~ C ~O C] oo ~ 0 _ ~r ~ co ~ u: ~ ~r ~ _ co ~ oo ~ =4 ~ oO c ~S~ oO o ~ L- - ~JO - ~) t- C~ ~ C~ ~O _)f) C~ O(~) C~00 =);~ 00- C ~O -~ CO Co ~ ~4- - - - - - ~ ~- -O -C~) ~4~4 ~O _O C ~_ C~) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... _ _ _ _ - ~ ~ oO cr, c ~ c~ _ ~ _ r ~0 ~ ~c~ _ c~ ~_ c ~0 c ~_ oo oo oo ~ u: ~ ~ ~ co 0 0 ~r ~r co ~ 0 ~ co ~ ~ ~oo oo~r . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . - - CO Co _ _ _ ~ ~_ _ _ ~ c~ ~r c~ ~ c~ cc ~ c~0 c ~0 c ~co co 0 u: ~1 1 ~ ~ ~ ~1 1 1 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~_ _ __ ~ ~1 1 1 1 ~r C5: c~ ~_ ~ oo _ ~ - ~0 ~ ~0 0 0 oo 0 _c~ ~r cc ~n co co ~ ~ ~ cc c~ co co ~ ~c~ ~C~ C ~O O ~ ~c~ O ~ r ~c~ ~_ _ _ _ ~ ~_ 0 ~oo CO oo ~ C~ oo0 ~C~ ~ CCC~ oo_ __ CC C~ C~ ~ ~ ~0 _ . .. . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . U: CD_ __ _~ ~_ _ oo~ ~r 0 c~ ~ ~_ _c~ oo~ oocr: c~_ ~=4 ~oo _ _ _C~O O~ ~C~ C~C~ ~C~ CO_ CD CO - C;) C~ ~C~ CD~ ~ ~ CO CO U)_ _oo ~CO 0_ C~_ 0~ _ ~ 0 C~ ~- _- _ - - C~ ~O OCO ~ ~ ~00 __ CD ~ ~ .. . .. .. . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . ~ ~ 0 oo _ ~ ~ co 0 _ ~0 co oo ~r oo u: OQ ~- ~r oo ~ cr: c~ oo a: a: ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ C] c ~c~ ~ O oo ~c~ d ~- 00 ~ ~oo oo _ _ ~ oo C~ C ~ ~ 00 ~ _ ~c~ O ~ U: O ~ ~ ~O ~C~ CD ~ O _ oO O _ 00 ~CO CO C~ CO ~ ~ oo ~ oo CO CO CS ~C~ CO o. oo ~ ~C~ ~oo ~ ~CO oo _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ c ~oo a~ _ _ _ oo C5) ~ ~ _ 0 ~ - a: 0 ~_ oo ~ oo c ~ ~co oo oo oo C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ _ ~ C ~ C5) ~ C ~ CO ~ C ~C~ C ~_ C~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ C~ C ~ C ~_ _ _ cc co ~ _ c~ ~ oo _ co c~ co 0 c ~0 ~c~ co u: c ~c~ co ~r c~ c~ cc ~_ _ c~ ~ ~c ~ u: oo a ~u: oo c~ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... ~ ~CN C ~_ ~ _ oo ~C~ ~oo c~ 0 ~ C] 0 ~ ~oo oo ~ _ _ ~ ~ oo _ 0 _ =4 ~Cc) ~~ . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . - - - 1 1 ~ ~- - - - - _ _ oo ~ 0 C~ U: _ _ .. . . . . . . _ _ ~ ~ CO oo ~ _ . . . . . . _ C~ ~ 0 CO oo _ _ _ C~ C~ . . . . . . 00 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 oo 0 oo 0 a, 0 _ _ _ a: ~ c ~r a) u: l 0 ~0 0 0 0 l oo ~ . . ~ 0 - . . CN 0 ~ 0 - ~D C~ o O, ~C Ct ~ ~04 ~ ~ =^ ~ Ct ~ :~` 0 C) ^= _ p:; ~ 0 ~ ~ Ct ~ e;, ~ ~ Ct C) 0~ C) C)~ Ct0 P"~ ~C~ .__ CtCt _ C] C~ ~ C ~ oo ~ 0 _ C ~C~ ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ _ _ _ _ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C~ ~ C~ oo . . 00 ~ . . _ ~ - C5) C~ C~ o O, 0 oo~ oo CO ooC~ . .. . C~ ~_ _ ~ 0_ ~ . .. . C~ oo ~C~ . .. . cq 0c~ 0 a, 0~ 0 __ __ 00 CO_ OC~ OO )~ '? O b4 ~ ~Ct - 's a ~ c 3 =, O0 O _ . . _ _ . . _ CC C~ C~ O a: 0 - o - - O, Ct C: 04 ~O _ ~ ~ Ct ~ ~Z ~ m c' cc _ 00co _ . .. . ~ coc~ 0 ~a~ 0 . .. . ~ c~ oo a,~ '~ . .. . _ O_ 0 a: 0~ 0 __ c~_ co~ _a, _ O,O, c~ ~o E~ _ c' 00 0 _ . . _ _ c~ ~ . . ~ a) . . 0 a: 0 - - c~ o u: ~ ,~ ~ c ~ ._ ~ ~_ bO O ~z ~ ~ ;, ~ 3 - L~ c) ~ _ ~C~) ~Cc ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes 57 ~n ~ ~ _ c~ 0 ~ 0 ~ c ~~ O 00 CO ~ ~O co c~ oO O _ O oo c~ c~ u: co - c~ _ ~ ~r ~ ~ ~ _ oo 0 ~ u) _ c ~_ ~ oo c~ co c~ ~ ~ _ _ _ _ c~ c ~_ c~ _ c ~_ _ c~ c ~ ~c~ cc ~ ~co c ~ co c~ O _ _ ~ 00 C5) ~ O ~ _ ~ c ~ ~0 o0 ~ c ~ c ~u) _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ 00 ~ ~ ~ 1 1 1 1 ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ 00 ~0 ~ ~ O ~ 0 0 ~O ~0 O _ O - d~ ~ ~ ~r ~ ~ n 0 0c~ ~ c ~ 0 ~ _ ~ ~co ______ ____ ____ c ~c~c ~c ~c~ ~ O C5) 0 ~ O ~ oo ~ ~ ~ c ~00 0CO C;) _ CO U) 00 C~ CO C~J C~ O O 00 a: ~ ~ =4 U: _ C~ ~ a) C~ ~ ~ 1 ~=4 Co 1 1 Co 00 C~ ~1 1 1 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ C~ C~ _ _ _ _C~ C ~1 1 C~ CKi 1 1 C ~1 1 1 1 ~ ~4 ~ ~ _ _ oo e~ C5) ~ CD CO c ~ co ~ c ~0 ~r ~r 0 ~ c ~oo _ oo ~ C~ ~ 0 _ ~ ~ ~ ~ u: 0 _ _ c ~oo ~_ ~c ~ _ CD 00 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C~ CO C~ C ~C~ C ~_ C ~_ _ oo oo ~ oo ~r ~ 0 u: 0 ~ co cc co co ~c~ 0 oo c ~_ ~CS ~O oO ~4 ~ CJ, CO ~ 0 =4 ~ ~4 ~1~ ~ C~ q4 _ C ~ CO CO ~ O ~ ~ CC) ~ C~ . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ C~ C ~_ _ C~ C ~_ - _ _ ~ CC C~ C ~C~ 00 0 ~ ~ C'7 C~ ~ ~ 00 C~ C~ ~ ~ C ~C~ ~CO C ~O CO ~ _ C~ _ _ ~O U) ~14 ~ ~t4 ~4 CO ~ C<1 C ~_ C] ~ 00 C~ C ~CD CC) LO CC) CC) C ~t~ 00 1= CD ~4 ~ t- CD O oo ~14 ~ =4 ~- a) 1~1 ~- ~ (3) ~4 C~ ~00 1:- ~ ~a: co 0 cc oo ~ _ 0 ~0 c~ v) C~ ~ CC O _ _ _ _ _ CS C.D U) ~ ~_ C ~_ ~a) _ ~ 10 0 C ~ a) 00 a: co . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - c~ c ~- c ~- - c~ c ~- - - - - - _ ~ 0 oo 0 ~ ~ oo ~ oo ~ c~ ~ ~oo 0 _ a: ~ 0 ~ ~co co ~ ~co a~ a: oo oo c ~ oo co oo c~ u ~ ~c~ 0 0 ~c~ oo ~ _ ~ 0 C~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ c~ c ~co ~ ~n ~ ~r ~co ~ oo CS) d4 C5) ~ C~ C~ _ ~ ~ O ~ ~ C~ CO ~ ~ _ O O ~ ~ ~r oo ~co cc ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ c~ cc c~ ~r co co ~ co ~ c ~c~ ~ d ~- C ~ 00 00 C~ - - ~ ~ - - - - ~ ~ ~ ~- - ~ ~ ~ ~1 1 ~ ~ ~ ~1 1 Ce~ ) C') =} C.D U: CC) ~ ~ ~r oo co C~ c~ ~ co ~ _ 0 ~0 oo ~ ~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~- c ~o c ~cD c ~- c ~- ~oo - ~4 1 1 1 1 00 C~ ~ CO ~ CS CD ~ 00 _ 00 C~ _ _ ~ C ~O ~ ~_ co ~ o ~ oo 0 co ~ co ~ a: 0 c~ ~r co _ c ~ ~_ c ~_ ~co ~co oo ~4 ~C~ C~ ] c~ c] - o o o - u) _ C~ - C~ ~ CD C~ ~ c~ ~00 ~ ~ _ ~ 00 ~ C ~C~ ~C~ O ~ 00 _ U) O ~C~ ______ ___ ~__ ~CD ~11 ~'~ O ~ c~ ~ oo ~ ~ c~ - c ~co o u) ~ oo ~ - c~ c ~ c ~co co ~r ~ ~r ~ c~ c~ co co oo 0 c ~co ~ _ co 0 ~ 0 0 ~c~ - - - - - ~ ~ ~ ~- - c~ c ~ ~cO ~ ~c~ ';r ~ ~ ~ co ~ ~ cO ~ oo co ~ ~ c ~ c~ c] c ~-oo -c ~ Co u) c ~ coo C ~- ~oo o -co c~ 0 c~ c~ co ~ 0 ~ _ ~ oo _ ~c~ ~ ~co 0 ~ _ c~oo ~ co co _ _ ln ~r _ _ ~r ~ ~r ~ co C~ cs ~ ~co ~u: ~ ~c.c co ~ co co C.D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . co 0 _ 0 _ 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 _ 0 _ 0 c~ 0 ~ 0 0 0 c~ 0 0 0 c~ 0 c~ 0 ~ 0 c~ 0 a: 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 oo 0 oo O ~ 0 ~ 0 a: 0 ~ 0 0 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 a: 0 c~ 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ln ~co _ c ~_ 0 ~0 ~c ~c~ co ~ e~ oo oo 0 0 ~ _ ~c ~oo c ~co CD oO cr ~a ~0 0 ~0 oo oo oo c ~oo ~_ _ _ c ~_ _ c ~c ~c~ ~ca c ~0 c ~0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I t ~I I I I I I I I I I I I I - ' ~U: U) Ct ~ ~_~ R ~, ~ 3 _ ~3 ~3 ~ R ~ R R R ~R a E 3 A ~ =^ C Z ~ O E ~ ~ ~ E 3 ~ R E ~ E ~ E Y E 3 ~3 z ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o O ~ ~bO ~O ~ C) ~ a, 0 _ c~ c~ ~ ~ co ~ oo ~ O _ c ~ ~ co ~ oo cr, 0 _ c ~c~ ~u: co r~ oo ~ 0 c~ cc ~ ~ c~ co ~ c~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u: ~ ~n ~ ~n ~ co o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

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58 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes _ _ ct ~ :> _ ~3 Is 1 v: - ._ o o u: o o ._ ._ o o c' To ._ , al HO: _ c; _ . _ c~ .' ~ ~ =5 _ 'bC ~ ^ ~5 c; ~ ~ _ 0 0~ oo ~ ~ _ ~ ~ 00 0 . .. . . . ~ ~c ~co o c O ~ c~ cc 0 - ~ ~ CD ~ ~ [, ~ ~cOo ~ cr. .~ _ ~cg' ~o ~, ~ .= 0 ~ ~ ct _ c~ c~ ~ 3 ~o ~ - ~C~C~ , ~ _ V: _ C~ C) _ ~r . . ~ CC 1 1 _ ~r CO . . ~ C~ cr: C~ o CO . . . . ~r ~ ~CO . . .. U: oo o C~ C~ . . .. CM u: c~ cr: C~ - c~ - c~ ) ~. c~ ~ ~ ~r c~ u) . . . . ~r ~ ~ ~ a: ~ ~ cr, ~ o oo o . . . . cO ~ cO ~ ~ oo c~ ~r cc ~ u: . . . . Ou: ~ o ~o o . ~ ~ o D ~- - co u) 0 e~_ c~ ~ c~ c~ oc~ oo Oo ou: ~ c~ oo o~ cD c~ ~ ~ . .. . ~- - u) c~cO ~ oo- - . ~ ~ oo ~cO - co oo~ oo . .. . - - ~ co~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~rcc c~ co oo_ ~r ~ ~ c~ ~ ~. ~ ~ ~c~ c~ cM ~ ~c~ ~ ~ c~- - co ~ oo ~ ~- c~ oo ~ o c~ oo ~ c~ ~ c~ ~ _ ~ c~ ~r co ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ c~ c~ c~ ~ ~ ~ o c~ ~ o c~ o cD ~ co co ~ ~ c~ c~ oo ~ ~ ~ c~ r~ c~ ~n _ co ~ r~ - - c ~- - o o co o O c~ cN ~c ~ - ~ - ~ oo ~ 1 1 __ c~ ~ ~ ~ oo 0 ~r co c~ ~ 0 ~ oo a~ 0 c~ ~ - ~- - - cil ~_ ~ ~ co oo ~ 0 co c~ _ oo 0 ~ ~ c~ ~r ~ oo c~ c ~- - c~ - - ~ - ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ C53 0 CO ~ ~ ~ C~ C~ U) - U) ~ ~ ~ d4 ~ O o ~ co ~ ' ~c~ ~ ~r c~ c~ ~ 0 _ c~ ~c~ ~r ~ 0 ~ u: ~ _ o - ~ o c~ o co - c~ o o ~ ~ 'o o o c~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ '~ 'c O ~C5) - 00 ~C~ ~O 000 ~ _ _ ~ 00 00 oo0 ~ 0 c ~r oo c~ ~cc 0 c~ ~ (D - ~ O ~r ~r~ ~r =4 ~r =4 <3: _u: CD CC) Ct:) Co ~ ~ ' - cN 0 0~ cr) ~ ~c~ _ ~ u:~ ~0 ~r ~ 0 c ~u: c~r co ~ ~0 ~a~ ~0 c ~co oo u) ~ oo 0 O ~4 ~4 Cc ~c~) co ~ ~ c~ c~ 0 0 co ~ oo c~ c ~co ~r 0 ~ oo ~ ~ CO c~ ~ _ . . . . . ~n 0 ~ cc c~ ~c~ oo ~ ~co _ _ ~r ~ ~r CD O O CO ~U) CD U) ~C~ C ~o0 C ~CO ~ ~ ~ C~ ~r u: ~n t: _~ 0 ~ O ~r 0 _ 0 c~ 0 c~ 0 O ~ 0 0 0 ~ O ~ O ~ O ~5 ce C _ _O .o P" _ z 50 Z - o c~ O, co c~ O c~ O, O, u: co c ~O O, c ~ O _ oo oO co c~ 1 1 O O O O u: ~ . . . . . . . . 0 c~ 0 ~ 0 c~ 0 cr, 0 _ _ _ co oo oo O O O O 1 1 oo oo c~ o O, _ 1 ~ _ _ i I1 } 7 C~ ~ C ~ ~ C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C ~ c ~C) ~ C ~CO ~ ~ C ~ oo C5) 0 _ C ~CO ~ ~ CO ~ 00 CD O co co co c~ co co co co co ~ ~ ~ r~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oo o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

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Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes 59 =4 _ oo c~c~ 0 co c~ a: ~r ~ ~oo ~c~ 0~ co oo ~ 0 c~ 0 oo c~ ~4~ oo ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oooO O~ ~roo 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ co . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . _ _ c~ c ~_ c ~c~ c~ co co _ c~ cc co0 c ~ r~ ~ _oo c~ ~cc 0 c~ ~_ c~ ~ _ et ~ ~ ~c~ C ~_ _ _ _ _ C~d~ ~ _~ ~ U) ~_ _ O _ . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . c~ ~ cs r-oo c ~co 0 0 c~ ~ 0co cor- c~=* oo r- r-~ ~ co 0 0 0 ~ co~ ~ cc cc ~ U)_ c~ ~ 0 ~ c~ ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C~ C~ ~ oo o r- ~ 0 0 ~o r- c~ _ co co ~ 0 r- r- ~ ~ ~ ~_ ~Co oo c~ a .. .. .... .. .... _ _ C~ C ~C~ C~ ~ ~ a) ~ C ~C~ ~co C~ o r- ~ ~_ ~r _ c~ < ~r 0 c~ 0 _ c ~r~ ~ ~ ~ r- ~ co u: ~c~ 0 ~ ~n c~ co ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C~ cil ' ' ' c~ co co ~ coc~ oo ~ r- r- ~ c~c ~r ~r r- ~ oo ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ co co ~ ~ ~ ~ co r- 0 c~ ~oo ~ 0 c ~ ~ u) co . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ C~ C ~_ _ C~ C~ ~ oo ~ ooC~ c~ r- oo 0 c ~ ~r- oo c~ oo ~ oo c~ c~ c;: _ C~ C~_ C~ _ _ C~ ~ ~0 0 CD C5) C~ ~_ _ 0 _ .. .. ...... .. .. .... .... _ ~ 0 co _ c ~r-c;: c~ ~ oc ~c~ CD 0 _ ~ c~ u: ~co oo ~ oo CC' C~ ~ ~C~ CM _ _ _ _ C~ C ~ ~_ _ 0 _ ~ U: _ _ C] C] . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ c~ O ~ C ~ ~ ~ r- c~ ~r- ~_ ~C5) 0 c~ ~r- 0 oo c~ r- u: ~c~ ~r co ~ ~ ~r- ~ ~r oo _ ~ ~c~ co c~ . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C'1 C'1 C'1 C'1 _ _ C~ r- c~ cc ~o ~_ _ 0 ~ ~ c ~0 ~0 co 0 oo ~ cs co c~ _ 0 co ~ ~0 _ oo ~ ~ r- 0 _ ~ ~co Co 0 c~ c~ ~ Cc ~ oo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cc c ~_ _ _ _ c~ c ~ ~r ~ r c~ ~ oo c ~ 0 ~ ~ oo c~ ~ _ co _ ~ oo oo ~ c~ r- _ ~ ~ 0 cc c~ _ c ~u: co ~ ~ ~ ~r ~ co ~ ~c~ c ~ ~ 0 co ~ ~ ~ ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - c~ c ~- - c~ ~ ~ ~ c~ u) CS c ~0 c ~oo _ r~ oo ~ oo ~ co ~ ~_ oo ~ C ~ ~ oo O r- ~ oo ~c~ ~_ c~ _ _ c~ c ~ 0 _ _ 0 0 ~ 0 _ _ _ c~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ c~ _ c~ ~co c~ 0 ~ o r- ~ co c~ 0 ~ c ~ c~ ~ c~ ~co co ~ ~ ~ ~ co ~ ~ ~ oo ~ ~ Cc r- oo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 mm 1 1 =~= C~ co ~ ~C~ C ~O ~ 00 ~ C~ co U) ~`o 00 r- co ~ oo r- ~ ~r 0 ~ c~ _ c ~oo ~ ~ ~ co oo ~U: ~c~ ~r~ 0 0 u: ~ co ~r ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ ~ ~ ~ r r- oo oo ~oo c~ _ 0 oo ~_ ~_ ~r- oo ~ ~ ~ c~ c~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~f: Cc~ c~ ~ Cc ~_ C~: C~ O ~ ~00 C ~00 00 00 C~ = _ r- oo r- oo ~__ __ ___ ~n ~coooa) ........................ co0~r0_0c~0_000c~0_0cc0c~0 ~0C~O oo0 ~0 ~0C~0C5)0 ~O ~OooOoOO _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ CO ~_ 0 0 oo ~oo 0 0 C;) C ~CD ~C~ C ~C ~C ~C ~oo ~c ~r' c ~c ~r' c ~e ~c~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~1 1 1 1 1 1 ~r ~ 3 - ; . ~. ~ ~ ~. - -a ~ -~ 0 ~0 0 ~ _ c~ cc ~ co ~ oo ~ 0 _ c ~c~ ~ co r- oo ~ o _ c~ ~ ~r oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo oo ~ C5) CD ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ _ _ _ _ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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60 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes cat ._ _ ~ ^ co O ;^ ~ ~cat En u: _ _ _ a: co .. . . . _ _ ;^ ~ ._ ct _ - i, o 1 - ._ o o o c~ o o ._ ._ o c' c; 3 - C~ C ~C~ oo oo o . . . . C~ C~ ~ C) CO oo . . . . o ~CO CS 1 1 ~ ~o ~ _ CM ~ C~ CO oo U) ~ C~ ~ . . . . CO C ~o ~ C ~o oo U: C ~C~ ~ ~C;) ~ . . . . . . . . o C;) o o . . c~ c~ . . o C ~C~ ~ ~CO . . . . oo o . . C~ ~ oo oo 1 1 1 1 1 1 Q) C ~o ~CO C~ U) C ~I I _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~O _ - O {~D ._ ~ F_ _ oo =) _ _ co ~ ~ )~) _ - O - O _ _ _ , ~ ^ c~ oo ~ ~ ~ oo a' 0 oo a: 0 =4 oo O _ ~ ~ _ V: _ C ~_ _ CO CO O 000 00~ OC~ C~ ^ ~ ~ ~ ~ O _ _~ ~ ='= _ _ C) _ ~l ~ ~ C ~ OC~ ~ C~ ~O CD C~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O U: a, ~- sa _ C~ _ _ _ C~ C~ CM C ~CM CM ~ o. ~co ~co ~c~ co ~ ~ ~ ~0 cc a: 0 .V] ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~- ~ O _ ~ ~_ ~ ~ -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ O ;~ ~ ^ ~ ~co oo 0 co c: ~ ~' ' ' ' ' ' ' 1 1 'bt O ~ - C~ ~ C ~ _ C~ 00 0 0 ~ C~ I-~ .~ 0 ~ co ~ ~c~ ~O ~r 0 c~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~_ _ 0 ~ ^ _ oo ~ C ~_ ~C;) ~ oo ~CS ~ _ ~ '~V o ~c~ c ~ ~_ c ~c~ ~ ~ a: _ c ~~ 00 ;4 ~ _ - - c7 ~~ ~ ~r ~ =4 ~c~ c ~ ~ ~^ S ~0 oo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C ~0 _ 0 O- oo 0 a: 0 a ~0 ~0 ~0 ~0 ~0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I ~CO C ~0 ~_ 0 Ct ~C ~oo 0 0 ~CO _ ~1 ~Co 0, _ ~0 ~0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ._ r_ '_ ~=4 ~14 1O U: U) 1 o ._ ._ C) Ct z Z ~ ? ~z ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~c~ o o o s L~ st 1 0 ~ t

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Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes 61 ~ 00 c~ c~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ c~00 cc ~ co ;o r~ ~ oo _ ~ u: co U: co ~r u:CD C~ 00 . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ~ _ u~ oo ~ c~ 0 ~ u: ~ ~ co c~ ~roo ~ _ c~ c~ ~ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ c~ c~ . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . co - 0 ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ co _ c~ u:O co ~ _ ~ u: u: ~ c~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ 0 . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . __ c~ c~co ~ ~ _ . .. . c~ ~ c~ u:c~ cc ~ u:u: u, . .. . c~ ~r ~ _ c~cc oo . . . . 00 ~ ~ u: c~ 00 00 u: ~ ~ O ~ O 00 _ ~ u: ~ u: ~ ~ u: ~ ~ u: _ _ c~ c~ c~ 00 co c~ co c~ 00 co _ 00 c~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 ~ ~ u: . . . . . . . . . . . . u: u u: ~ ~ ~0 0 ~ ~ ~u: co . . . .. . _ _ 0 ~ 0 _ . . C] CD U) ~ ~ _ 00 C~ U) r~ c ~u: ~ u: ~c~ co u: cc) ~ O C.D CO CO ~- ~ U) ~ ~ U) ~ ~ O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ c~ c~ c`~ cc' ~ c`~ 00 ~4 00 _ co O co ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ ~ C~ CO C~ C~ . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 U) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ U) 0 _ U) C~ U) ~ U) ~ C~ ~ C~ =4 C~ C~ . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ C] ~ C~ 0 ~ U: ~ oo oo 0 _ 0 CD 0 0 CM U: ~ oo ~ oo 0 ~ 00 . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ u: c~ 0 c~ ~ ~ ~r _ _ CD U) ~ ~ CO ~ 0 ~ U) U) ~ ~ ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . - ~ ~ _ co ~ ~r ~ c~ ~r ~ c~ co ~r ~r ~ co ~ c~ co c~ . . . . . . . . . . . . C~ ~ ~ ~4 ~ Co ~ ~ C~ _ CD U) oo CD ~ oo ~ C~ U) CD C~ ~ ~ U) . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ 0 C~ C~ CO c~ co ~r ~ . . . . _ C~ ~ oo _ ~ CM C~ . . . . CD ~ C~ ~ U) . . . . CD ~ C~ CD ~ C~ ~ ~ CD ~ CO C ~ C~ O ~ a: 0 ~ 0 oo _ u: co u, co ~ u: co co ~ co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ _ C~ C~ _ ~ ~ oo _ C~ 0 _ . . . . . . . . . U: ~ U: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ U! _ _ _ _ C~ C~ _ _ ~ . . . . . . . . . ~ O oo O oo O ~ O or oo O oo O oo O oO O X _ _ _ _ O C ~oo a: 0 _ _ C ~C~ U) U) U) O, O, O, ~r ~u: ~r _~ ~Ct . ,= ~5 ~ ~ o >~- bO Q ,~ ~ 0 4- eD _oo _U) ~U) O,O, ~r bC ._._ V' . a)=: L4;, O _._._ CtCt ) . . .. . . . O ~ OC~ O C~ O 0 oo Oc) 0 a) 0 _ _ _ _ ~c ~co r~ C ~oo oo C~ C ~_ _ 1 1 1 1 U) _ _ U) O, O, O, O, a; C' Ct ~ ~5 _ L3 U) CO C~ . . . . ~ c:~r - _ c~r~ 0 ~ ~CO ~ CO U:C~ oc C~ ~U: ~ . .. . c~ ~c~ e' _ ~U) ~ C~ COoo O . .. . ~ ~C~ CM O -C~ ~ . .. . _ __ _ U) ~CO U, ~ ooC~ oo . .. . _ _C~ C~ 0 u~r c~ C~ C~C~ oO . .. . oo ~_ ~ . .. . ~ Cocr) c~ ~r C~ U? U) O, C~ .o O =5 ~ C~ C C,0 ~ ._ ~0 ~ ^ `~ '^ ._ ~l - ;, ~

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62 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes TABLE 14 Composition of Mineral Supplements. Data Expressed As-Fed and Dry (100 So Dry Flattery Interna- Mag- Phos- Potas Entry tionalDry Calcium Chlorine nesium phorus slum Sodium Sulfur Num- Feed Matter (Ca) iCl) (Mg) (P) (K) (Na) (S) her Feed Name Description Numberb i Boy (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) `%) 001 Ammonium phosphate, monobasic, 6-09-338 97. 0.27 - 0.45 24.00 0.01 0.06 1.42 002 (NH4)lI2PO4 100. 0.28 - 0.46 24.74 0.01 0.06 1.46 003 Ammonium phosphate, dibasic, 6-00-370 97. 0.50 - 0.45 20.00 0.01 0.05 2.10 004 (NH4)2HPo4 100. 0.52 - 0.46 20.60 0.01 0.05 2.16 005 Bone, charcoal (bone black) 6-00-402 90. 27.10 - 0.53 12.73 0.14 006 (bone char) 100. 30.11 - 0.59 14.14 0.16 007 Bone, meal, steamed 6-00-400 97. 29.82 - 0.32 12.49 0.18 5.53 2.44 008 100. 30.71 - 0.33 12.86 0.19 5.69 2.51 009 Calcium, carbonate, CaCO3 6-01-069 100. 39.39 - 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.06 010 100. 39.39 - 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.06 - 011 Calcium, phosphate, dibasic, from 6-01-080 97. 21.30 - 0.57 18.70 0.07 0.05 1.11 012 defluorinated phosphoric acid 100. 22.00 - 0.59 19.30 0.07 0.05 1.14 013 Calcium, phosphate, tribasic, from 6-01-084 97.C 38.00 - - 19.50 - - - 014 furnace phosphoric acid 100. 39.20 - - 20.10 015 Cobalt, carbonate, CoCO3 6-01-565 99 c _ _ _ _ _ _ 0.20 016 100. - - - - - - 0.20 017 Copper (Cupric), sulfate, 6-01-719 100. - - - - - - 12.80 018 pentahydrate, CuSO4 5H2O 100. - - - - - - 12.80 019 Iron (Ferrous), sulfate, 6-01-869 98. - - - - - - 18.00 020 monohydrate, FeSO4-H2O 100. - - - - - - 18.37 021 Limestone 6-02-632 100. 34.00 0.03 2.06 0.02 0.12 0.06 0.04 022 100. 34.00 0.03 2.06 0.02 0.12 0.06 0.04 023 Magnesium, carbonate, 6-02-754 98.C 0.02 0.00 30.20 024 MgCo3Mg(OH)2 100. 0.02 0.00 30.81 - - - - 025 Oystershell, ground (flour) 6-03-481 99. 37.62 0.01 0.30 0.07 0.10 0.21 026 100. 38.00 0.01 0.30 0.07 0.10 0.21 - 027 Phosphoric acid, H3PO4 6-03-707 75. 0.04 - 0.38 23.70 0.02 0.03 1.16 028 100. 0.05 - 0.51 31.60 0.02 0.04 1.55 029 Phosphate, defluorinated 6-01-780 100. 32.00 - 0.42 18.00 0.08 4.90 030 100. 32.00 - 0.42 18.00 0.08 4.90 - 031 Potassium, sulfate, K2SO4 6-08-098 98.C 0.15 1.52 0.60 - 41.00 0.09 17.00 032 100. 0.15 1.55 0.61 - 41.84 0.09 17.35 033 Sodium, chloride, NaC1 6-04-152 100. - 60.66 - - - 39.34 034 100. - 60.66 - - - 39.34 - 035 Sodium, iodide, Nat 6-04-279 100.C - - - - - 15.33 036 100. - - - - - 15.33 - 037 Sodium, phosphate, dibasic, from 6-04-286 97.C _ _ _ 20.85 - 31.04 038 furnace phosphoric acid Na2HPO4 100. - - - 21.50 - 32.00 039 Sodium, tripolyphosphate, 6-08-076 96. - - - 24.00 - 29.80 040 NasP3Ol0 100. - - - 25.00 - 31.00 041 Zinc, carbonate, ZnCO3 6-05-549 99. 042 100. - - - - - - - a The composition of mineral ingredients that are hydrated (e.g., CaSO4 2H2O) is shown, including the waters of hydration, both on an as-fed and dry matter basis. Mineral composition of feed grade mineral supplements varies by source, mining site, and manufacturer. Use manufacturer's analysis when available. bFirst digit is class of feed: 1, dry forages and roughages; 2, pasture, range plants, and forages fed green; 3, silages: 4, energy feeds; 5, protein supplements: 6, miner- als; 7, vitamins; 8, additives; the other five digits are the International Feed Number. CDry matter values have been estimated for these minerals.

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Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes 63 Man- Selen Entry Cobalt Copper Fluorine Iodine Iron ganese ium Zinc Num- (Co) (Cu) (F) (I) (Fe) (Mn) (Se) (Zn) ber (% ) /( % ) ( % ) I< % ) (% ) (, 70 ) i, c;rO ~ O;, ~ 001 002 003 004 408 006 007 008 408 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 02s 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 03s 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 0.001 0.001 0.24 0.001 0.001 0.2s 0.001 0.20 0.001 0.21 .690 0.04 - 0.0 .740 0.04 - 0.0 .200 0.04 - 0.0 .240 0.04 - 0.0 - - - - 2.600 - - 0.0 - - - - 2.670 - - 0.0 - - - - 0.030 0.03 - - - - - - 0.030 0.03 - - 0.001 0.001 0.18 - 1.400 0.03 - 0.0 0.001 0.001 0.18 - 1.440 0.03 - 0.0 4s.s4 - - - 0.049 - - - 46.00 - _ _ o.oso - _ _ 2s.40 - - - - - - - 2s.40 - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ 32.300 - - - _ _ _ _ 32.960 - - - - - - - 0.3so - - - - - - - 0.3so - - - - - - - 0.021 - _ _ - - - - 0.022 - _ _ - - - - 0.284 0.01 - - - - - - 0.287 0.01 - - 0.001 0.001 0.23 - 1.310 0.04 - 0.010 0.001 0.001 0.31 - 1.750 o.os - 0.013 0.001 0.002 0.18 - 0.670 0.02 - 0.006 0.001 0.002 0.18 - 0.670 0.02 - 0.006 - - - - 0.070 0.001 - - - - - - 0.071 0.001 - - 84.66 84.66 - 0.004 - - - 0.004 51.63 - 52.15

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64 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes TABLE 15 Occurrence of Thiaminase in F'ish Portion Species Tested a Habitatb Source References Species reported to contain thiaminase Alewife (Pomolobos pseudoharengus) W F Lake Michigan Gnaedinger (1965) Anchovies (Anchoa hepsetus) W S Gulf of Mexico Jones (1960) Anchovies (Engraulis mordox) W S Pacific Stout et al. (1963) Bass (white) (Lepibema chrysops) - F - Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Black quahog (Artica islandica) - S Atlantic Lee (1948) Bowfin (dogfish) (Amia calva) W F Arkansas Gnaedir~ger (1965) Bream (Abramis brama) - F - Kuusi (1963) Buckeye shiner (Notrop~s atherionoides) - S - Lee (1948) Buffalofish (Ictiobm cyprinellus) V F Arkansas Borgstrom (1961) Bull head (Ameirurus m. melas) W F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Burbot (Lota iota maculosa) V F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943~; Gnaedinger (1965) Burbot (Lota lota) W F Lake Erie Deutsch and Hasler (1943~; Gnaedinger (1965) Butterfish (Poronotus triacanthus) W S Gulf of Mexico Lee et al. (1955) Carp (Cyprinus carpio) W. V F Great Lakes Gnaedinger (1965~; Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Catfish (channel) (Ictalurus lacustris punctatus) W F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Clams (chowder, steamer, cherrystone) - F - Melnick et al. (1945) Fathead minnow (Primephales p. promelas) W F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Garfish (garpike) - S - Borgstrom (1961) Goldfish (Carassius auratus) W F Great Lakes Gnaedinger (1965) Herring (Baltic) (Clupea harengus var. - S Baltic Kuusi (1963) membranus) Herring (Clupea harengus) W S Atlantic Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Lamprey (adult) (Petromyzon marinus) W F Great Lakes Borgstrom (1961) Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) (Pacific) W S Pacific Borgstrom (1961) Menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) W S Chesapeake Bay Greig and Gnaedinger (1971) Menhaden (large scale) (Brevoortia patronus) W S Gulf of Mexico Jones (1960) Moray eel (Gymnothorax ocellatus) W S Gulf of Mexico Lee et al. (1955) Mussel (bigtoe) (Pluerobema cordatum) M 17 Tennessee River Gnaedinger (1965) Razor belly (scaled sardine) W S Gulf of Mexico Lee et al. (1955) (Harengula pensacolae) Sauger (Stizostedion c. canadense) V F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Scallop (Placopecten grandis) M S Atlantic Neilands (1947) Sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis W F Lake Michigan Gnaedinger (1965) thompsonii ~ Shad (gizzard) (Dorosoma cepedianum) W F Lake Erie Gnaedinger (1965) Shiner (spottail) (Notropis hudsoniu~) W F Lake Michigan Gnaedinger (1965) Smelt (freshwater) (Osmeru~ mordox) W F Great Lakes Gnaedinger (1965~; Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Stoneroller (central) (Campostoma anomaZum W F Lake Michigan Gnaedinger (1965) pullum) Sucker (common white) (Catostomu~s c. W F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943~; Gnaedinger (1965) . . commerson~ White bass (Lepimbema chrysops) V F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Whitefish (Prosopium cylindraceum V F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943) quadriaterale) Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) D F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Species reported not to contain thiaminase Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) - F - Borgstrom (1961) Bass (largemouth) (Huro salmoides) W F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Bass (rock) (Ambloplites r. rupestris) - F _ Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Bass (smallmouth) (Micropterus d. dolomieu) W F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Black backs (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) W S Atlantic Neilands (1947) Bluegill (Lepomis m. macrochirus) W F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Chub (bloater) (Coregonus hoyi) W F Lake Michigan Gnaedinger (1965~; Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Cod (Gadus morrhua) M, V S Atlantic Deutsch and Hasler (1943~; Neilands (1947) Crappie (Pomoxis nigro-maculatus) W F Great Lakes Deutsch and Hasler (1943)

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Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes 65 TABLE 15 Occurrence of Thiaminase in Fish Continued Species Portion Tested a Habitatb Source References Croaker (Micropogon undulatus) Cunner ~ Tautogolabrus adspersus) Cusk (Brosme brosme) Cutlassfish (silver eel) ~ Trichiurm lepturus) Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) Eel (Anguilla rostrata) Gar (northern longnose) (Lepisosteus osseus oxqurus) Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) Halibut (Hippoglossus hippogloss~s) Hake (Urophyc~s spp.) Hake (Urophycis spp.) Herring (Leucichthys artedi areturm) King whiting (ground mullet) (Menticirrhus americanus) Lemon sole (Pseudopleuronectes americanus dignabilis) Lizard Fish (Synodus foetens) Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) Mullet (Mugil spp.) Perch (yellow) (Perca flavescens) Pike (northern) (Esox lucius) Pike (wall-eyed) (Stizostedion v. vitreum) Plaice (Canadian) (Hippog,lossoides platessoides) Pollock (Pollachius virens) Porgy (scup) ( Stenotomus aculeatus) Porgy (scup) ~ Stenotomus chryso ps) Pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) Redfish (Sebastes marinus) Salmon (Salmo salar) Salmon (coho) (Oncorhynchus k~tch) Seabass (Centropristis striatas) Sea catfish (Galeichthys felis) Sea robin (Prionotus spp.) Smelt (pond) (Hypomesus olidus) Spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) Squid (Loligo brevis) Tautog (blackfish) ~ Tautoga onit~s) Trout (brown) (Salmo trutta fario) Trout (lake) (Chrzstivomer n. namaycush) Trout (rainbow) (Salmo gairdnerii ir~deus) White trout (Cynoscion nothus) White trout (Cynosc~on avenarius) Whiting (Merlucc?u~ bilinearis) Yellow tails (Limanda ferruginea) W V W M, V M, V W M, V M, V W W W W W W W W W V M, V M, V W W W W M, v W W W V W W V W V W W W W S S S S S F F S S S S F S S S S S F F F S S S S F S F F S S S F S S S F F F S S S S Gulf of Mexico Long Island Sound Atlantic Gulf of Mexico Atlantic Atlantic Atlantic Pacific Gulf of Mexico Lake Superior Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Mexico Atlantic Gulf of Mexico Great Lakes Great Lakes Atlantic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Gulf of Mexico Chesapeake Bay Great Lakes Lake Michigan Chesapeake Bay Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Mexico Long Island Sound Great Lakes Great Lakes Great Lakes Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Mexico Atlantic Atlantic Gnaedinger (1965); Lee et al. (1955) Lee (1948) Neilands (1947) Gnaedinger (1965~; Lee et al. (1955) Neilands (1947) Neilands (1947) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Neilands (1947) Stout et al. (1963) Lee et al. (1955) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Gnaedinger (1965) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Lee et al. (1955) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Gnaedinger (1965) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Neilands (1947) Neilands (1947) Lee et al. (1955) Greig and Gnaedinger (1975) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Neilands (1947) Borgstrom (1961) Borgstrom (1961) Lee et al. (1955) Gnaedinger (1965~; Lee et al. (1955) Borgstrom (1961) Gnaedinger (1965~; Lee et al. (1955) Lee et al. (1955) Lee (1948) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Gnaedinger (1965) Lee et al. (1955) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) Deutsch and Hasler (1943) aw = whole fish V = viscera M = muscle bF = freshwater S = saltwater

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66 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes TABLE 16 Daily Metabolizable Energy Requirements of Foxes Silver Adult Females Blue Adult Females Blue Adult Males Live ME Requirement Live ME Requirement Live ME Requirement Weight (kcal) Weight (kcal) Weight (kcal) Month (kg) Per Animal Per kga (kg) Per Animal Per kga (kg) Per Animal Per kga January 6.37 435 68.3 6.44 450 69.8 8.0 500 62.5 February 5.72 430 75.2 6.19 410 66.2 7.6 450 59.2 March 5.50 580 105.4 5.85 440 75.2 7.15 460 64.3 April 5.60 580 103.6 5.45 530 97.2 6.55 600 91.6 July 4.81 545 113.3 4.8 570 118.8 5.8 670 115.5 August 5.14 590 114.8 5.02 610 121.5 6.1 720 118.0 September 5.59 600 107.3 5.35 670 125.2 6.57 800 121.8 October 6.05 555 91.7 5.90 640 108.4 7.32 780 106.6 November 6.30 530 84.1 6.30 610 96.8 7.85 730 93.0 December 6.50 470 72.3 6.50 510 78.5 8.0 600 75.0 a Calculated from data presented by Perel'dik (1972).