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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS NUMBER 7 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes Seconc! reviser! eclition, ~982 Subcommittee on Furbearer Nutrition Committee on Animal Nutrition Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources National Research Council fir NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1982

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NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS SERIES Nutrient Requirements of Trout, Salmon, and Catfish, 1973 Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, 1974 Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, 1975 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 1976 Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, 1977 Nutrient Requirements of Warmwater Fishes, 1977 Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 1977 Nutrient Requirements of Cats, 1978 Nutrient Requirements of Horses, 1978 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 1978 Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, 1978 Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, 1978 Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 1979 Nutrient Requirements of Goats, 1981 Nutrient Requirements of Coldwater Fishes, 1981 0-309-02141-3 0-309-02351-7 0-309-02212-6 0-309-02419-6 0 309 02607-5 0-309-02616-4 0-309-02725-X 0 309-02743-8 0-309-02760-8 0-309-02749-7 0-309-02786-1 0-309-02767-5 0-309-02870-1 0-309-03185-0 0-309-03187-7 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the Na- tional Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of ad- vising the federal government. The Council operates in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy under the authority of its congressional charter of 1863, which establishes the Academy as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation. The Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in the conduct of their services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. It is ad- ministered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine were established in 1964 and 1970, respectively, under the charter of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences. This study was supported by Agricultural Research, Science and Education Administration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, by the Bureau of Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and by Agriculture Canada. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Nutrient requirements of mink and foxes. (Nutrient requirements of domestic animals; no. 7) Revision of: 1st rev. ea., 1968. Bibliography: p. 1. Minks-Feeding and feeds. 2. Foxes-Feeding and feeds. I. National Research Council (U.S.~. Subcommittee on Furbearer Nutrition. II. Series. SF95.N32 no. 7, 1982 [SF405.M6] ISBN 0-309-03325-X Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America 636.08'52s 82-14486 F636'.974441

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Preface This report is one of a series issued under the direction of the Committee on Animal Nutrition (CAN), of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources, Na- tional Research Council. It was prepared by the CAN Subcommittee on Furbearer Nutrition and is the sec- ond revised edition. The subject was first addressed in Publication 296, Nutrient Requirements of Foxes and Minks, published in 1953, and the first revised edition was published in 1968 as Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes. The earlier reports were the first attempts to develop nutrient requirements for mink and foxes. In this re- port, additional data are included for the formulation of diets using alternative feedstuffs to the traditional diets of fresh meat and fish as these become increas- ingly scarce and expensive. - .

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Acknowledgments The subcommittee wishes to thank the Scandinavian scientists, Hans Rimeslatten, Anders Skrede, and Arne Helgebostad from Norway; Eva Alden and Anne Helene Tauson from Sweden; Jaakko Makela and Tuomo Kiiskinen from Finland; and Niels Glem- Hansen from Denmark for supplying to the subcom- mittee experimental results and data concerning Scandi- navian norms for forbearing animals and nourishment value and utilization of different feedstuffs. Our thanks also to Hans Rimeslatten for his very valuable contributions to the part concerning foxes and to Niels Glem-Hansen for supplying basic information concerning energy and protein requirements of mink. A special thanks to Niels Glem-Hansen for his valuable help in supplying the subcommittee with detailed data about the Scandinavian feedstuffs. The subcommittee acknowledges the efforts of the International Feedstuffs Institute, Utah State Univer- sity, in establishing and maintaining the data bank that supplied feed composition data for the subcommittee's consideration. The assistance of the Committee on Ani- mal Nutrition's Subcommittee on Feed Composition is also acknowledged with appreciation. The subcommittee is indebted to Philip Ross, Ex- ecutive Secretary, and Selma P. Baron, Staff Officer, of the Board on Agriculture and Renewable Resources for their assistance in the production of this report; to the members of the Committee on Animal Nutrition; and to John Adair, Robert O. Herrmann, Harold I. blintz, I. K. Loosli, Howard D. Stowe, and Richard G. Warner, all of whom prepared critical reviews for the advice and guidance of the subcommittee. We are in- debted to all of these scientists. Our special thanks to George K. Davis, who served as review coordinator for this report. Subcommittee on Furbearer Nutrition HUGH F. TRAVIS, Chairman USDA, SEA, Cornell University, retired E. V. EVANS University of Guelph, Ontario, retired GUNNAR JOERGENSEN National Institute of Animal Science, Denmark RICHARD J. AULERICH Michigan State University WILLIAM L. LEOSCHKE Valparaiso University, Indiana JAMES E. OLDlIELD Oregon State University v

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COMMITTEE ON ANIMAL NUTRITION JOSEPH P. FONTENOT University (Chairman), vie and State DUANE E. Ugly (Vice Chairman), Michigan State University JIMMY H. CLARK, University of Illinois RICHARD D. GOODRICH, University of Minnesota NEAL A. JORGENSEN, University of Wisconsin-Madison BERYE E. MARCH, University of British Columbia JAMES G. MORRIS, University of California-Davis WILSON G. POND, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center GARY E. RUMSEY, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service SELMA P. BARON, Staff Officer BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND RENEWABLE RESOURCES GEORGE K. DAVIS (Chairman), University of Florida, retired NEVILLE P. CLARKE (Vice Chairman), Texas A&M University WILLIAM L. BROWN, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. ROBERT O. HERRMANN, Pennsylvania State University MINORU HIRONAKA, University of Idaho LAURENCE R. JAHN, Wildlife Management Institute BERNARD S. SCHWEIGERT, University of California-Davis E. WAYNE SHEEN, Auburn University GEORGE R. STAEBEER, Weyerhaeuser Co., retired CHAMP B. TANNER, University of Wisconsin JOHN F. TIMMONS, Iowa State University PAUL E. WAGGONER, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New lIaven PHILIP ROSS, Executive Secretary vi

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Contents INTRODUCTION 1 TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN THE FEED SUPPLY 21 DETERMINING NUTRITIONAL Synthetic Estrogens, 21 REQUIREMENTS 2 Thyroid Glands, 21 Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, 21 FORMULATING DIETS OR PolychlorinatedBiphenyls, 21 FEED MIXTURES 5 Histamine, 22 Feed Sanitation, 5 Heavy Metals, 22 Water Quality, 6 Nitrosamines, 22 Mycotoxins, 22 MINK: RECOMMENDED DIETARY Botulism, 23 ALLOWANCES 7 Energy, 7 FOXES: RECOMMENDED DIETARY Fat, 9 ALLOWANCES 24 Carbohydrates, 9 Energy, 24 Protein, 10 Fats, 25 Fat-Soluble Vitamins, 11 Carbohydrates, 25 Water-Soluble Vitamins, 13 Protein, 25 Minerals, 15 Fat-Soluble Vitamins, 26 Water-Soluble Vitamins, 27 FEED ADDITIVES 18 Minerals, 29 Antibiotics, 18 Antioxidants, 18 COMPOSITION OF FEEDS 31 DISORDERS RELATED TO NUTRITION 19 TABLES 33 Urinary Calculi, 19 Wet-Belly Disease, 19 REFERENCES 67 .. V11

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