standing of population-based approaches to diagnose and prevent disease, whether endemic or exotic. A broad diagnostic outlook for the herd or flock considering population health, rather than disease in only one or a few animals, and expanding diagnostic perspectives will increase the likelihood of early recognition of new or emerging diseases. These efforts will improve the overall chance of detecting a foreign animal disease through a broader accession base and increased interest at the farm level, in the wild, and in companion animals. Inherent in this new strategy of enhanced prevention and early detection is a means of funding routine diagnostic testing for indigenous diseases that mimic foreign or exotic animal diseases.

ANIMAL HEALTH RESEARCH

Recommendation 4: Federal agencies involved in biomedical research (both human and veterinary) should establish a method to jointly fund new, competitive, comprehensive, and integrated animal health research programs; ensure that veterinary and medical scientists can work as collaborators; and enhance research, both domestically and internationally, on the detection, diagnosis, and prevention of animal and zoonotic disease encompassing both animal and human hosts.

This process might be modeled on the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-administered Interagency Comparative Medicine Research Program, an interagency task force model, or some comparable process that promotes this type of cooperative research agenda.

This recommendation builds on a recommendation in the IOM report Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response, which states: “NIH should develop a comprehensive research agenda for infectious disease prevention and control in collaboration with other federal research institutions and laboratories (e.g., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Defense, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation), academia, and industry” (IOM, 2003).

The agenda should include collaborative research among veterinary and medical scientists to provide an integrated research approach to detect and prevent zoonotic diseases infecting both human and animal hosts. In addition, it should include integrated research on comparative medicine to address interspecies transmission, disease pathogenesis, and host responses in diverse species including wildlife. Zoonotic strains of avian influenza, concerted research efforts, and dialogue involving veterinary and medical scientists are needed to address the most applicable control measures to be implemented in avian species to block transmission to humans. Research would not be limited to domestic activities only but would include the international dimensions, such as developing preven-



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