several species of Brucella and marked by fever, sweating, weakness, and headache. It is transmitted to humans by direct contact with diseased animals or through ingestion of infested meat, milk, or cheese.


Any of various hoofed ruminant mammals of the family Cervidae, characteristically having deciduous antlers borne chiefly by the males. The deer family also includes the elk, moose, caribou, and reindeer.

Classical swine fever (CSF):

A highly contagious, deadly disease of swine, also known as hog cholera.


Any of various single-stranded, RNA-containing viruses that cause respiratory infection in humans and resemble a crown when viewed under an electron microscope because of their petal-shaped projections.

Chronic wasting disease (CWD):

A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affecting elk and deer (cervids) in North America.


The pattern of disease characterized by a sustained level of disease over time.


The pattern of disease characterized by an increase in frequency of disease above the expected for the population.

Exotic animal disease:

Diseases such as SARS and monkeypox that are new and/or emerging diseases, but which are not listed by OIE. In the report, the term refers to any animal disease caused by a disease agent that does not naturally occur in the United States.

Exotic Newcastle disease (END):

A contagious and fatal viral disease affecting all species of birds.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD):

A highly contagious viral infection primarily of cloven-hoofed domestic animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and water buffalo) and cloven-hoofed wild animals. The disease is characterized by fever and vesicles with subsequent erosions in the mouth, nares, muzzle, feet, or teats.

Foreign animal disease (FAD):

Long-standing diseases that have been kept out of the United States (e.g., FMD, CSF, BSE, rinderpest, etc.) and that are listed by OIE (list A and list B). In the report, the term refers to an exotic animal disease limited to agricultural animals.

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