Endemic Diseases. Animal-borne diseases that are native to or commonly found in the United States. Examples addressed here include:

  • Avian influenza

  • Chronic wasting disease

  • West Nile virus

While the committee recognizes that at one time these agents may have been considered as newly emergent, each of them has now become firmly established in North America and is considered endemic for the purposes of this report.

Novel Naturally Occurring Pathogens. Organisms previously unreported or infrequently associated with being a primary pathogen in a given host species. Novel naturally occurring pathogens may contain new genomic elements acquired through natural processes and not as the result of in vitro insertion.

Bioengineered Animal Pathogens. Organisms containing genomic elements that were acquired in vitro.

Diseases of Toxicological Origin. Diseases caused by exposure to toxic substance(s), including drug residues, in a concentration that alone or in combination meets either of the following criteria: (1) the animal(s) affected is/are a potential source of toxicological contamination to humans or other animals and/or (2) the source of the toxicological agent or exposure is potentially hazardous to humans or other animals.

eggs, a process requiring 2 to 7 days, followed by pathogenicity testing of the isolated virus by inoculation into chickens or direct nucleic acid sequence analysis of the virus’ pathogenicity marker. Isolation and characterization of the virus requires several days to several weeks, depending on the availability of eggs and experimental birds, access to containment and/or sequencing facilities, and technical resources at the federal laboratory. Though state and university veterinary diagnostic laboratories typically have virus isolation facilities with trained technical staff, consideration had not been given to using these resources; instead, the existing paradigm was for the federal laboratory to perform foreign animal dis-

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