and General Motors announced a new government-industry partnership between DOE and USCAR called FreedomCAR, with CAR standing for Cooperative Automotive Research. The new partnership supersedes and builds upon the PNGV program. In September 2003, FreedomCAR was expanded to include five large energy companies—BP America, Chevron Corporation, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil Corporation, and Shell Hydrogen (U.S.)—to address issues related to the supporting fuel infrastructure. The expanded scope of the partnership was acknowledged by changing the name to FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership.3 The long-term goal of the program is to “enable the full spectrum of light-duty passenger vehicle classes to operate completely free of petroleum and free of harmful emissions while sustaining the driving public’s freedom of mobility and freedom of vehicle choice” (DOE, 2004a).

The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership differs in several ways from PNGV. PNGV focused on replacing the family sedan (that is, a midsize automobile such as the Concorde, Lumina, or Taurus) with a marketable, more fuel-efficient design. It included specific vehicle milestones—namely, a concept vehicle by 2000 and a preproduction prototype by 2004. The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership addresses the development of advanced technologies for all light-duty passenger vehicles: cars, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), pickups, and minivans. It also addresses technologies for hydrogen production, distribution, dispensing, and storage, which were not a part of the PNGV program. It is a partnership between USCAR and one government agency, DOE, which collaborates with other agencies as needed. In PNGV, many agencies were involved and the lead agency was the Department of Commerce.4 No new government money was appropriated for PNGV. Each participating agency was expected to reprogram existing R&D funds to support PNGV goals. The FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership started with a presidential commitment to request $1.7 billion over 5 years (FY04 to FY08), with FY05 appropriations of about $310 million and an FY06 presidential budget request of about $360 million (Garman, 2005).5 Funding for research, development, and demonstration activities goes to universities, the national labo-


In February 2003, before the announcement of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, the President announced the FreedomCAR and Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to develop technologies for (1) fuel-efficient motor vehicles and light trucks, (2) cleaner fuels, (3) improved energy efficiency, and (4) hydrogen production and nationwide distribution infrastructure needed for vehicle and stationary power plants, to fuel both hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) and fuel cells (DOE, 2004a). The expansion of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership to include the energy sector after the announcement of the initiative also supports the goal of the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative.


The federal agencies involved in PNGV included the Department of Commerce, DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Department of Transportation (DOT), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).


The FY05 appropriation breaks down as follows: hydrogen technology, $120 million; fuel cells, $75 million; vehicle technologies, $85 million; Office of Science, $29 million; DOT, $0.55 million (Chapter 5, Tables 5-1 and 5-2).

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