Archeocyathids, 83

Archosaurs, 151, 152153, 160, 162, 177, 188, 211, 212

Arizona State University, 115

Arthropleura, 110

Arthropods, 3.

See also specific arthropods

body plan, 10, 12, 51, 5657, 59, 64, 111112

Cambrian, 51, 52, 5657, 5863

diversity, 109

gigantism, 91, 111112, 113, 115

land colonization, 93, 9596, 98, 99, 107

mass extinctions, 7879

Ordovician, 82

respiratory systems, 22, 6061, 95, 96

segmentation, 57, 5863, 91

Silurian, 91, 93, 9596, 98, 99

Asteroid impact. See Meteor/asteroid impacts

Atmosphere.

See also Carbon dioxide;

Nitrogen;

Oxygen;

Oxygen-poor conditions;

Oxygen-rich conditions

COPSE model, 39

determinants of changes, 3537, 3839

forcings, 3839

functions of, 31

GEOCARB model, 38

GEOCARBSULF model, 3839, 41

measuring changes, 3739

origins, 3233

ozone layer, 35, 143

present-day composition, 1, 31, 32, 34

pressure, 184

B

Bacteria, 83

in anoxic environments, 16, 214215

cyanobacteria, 3435, 5354

methanogens, 215

plant decomposition, 117

respiration, 12, 14

sulfur-metabolizing, 134, 136, 141142, 164

Bakker, Robert, 152, 173174, 175176, 180, 200, 205

Banded iron formations, 34

Bardet, Nathalie, 190

Basalt floods and, 140141, 233

Becker, Luann, 139, 140

Beerling, David, 119

Bennett, Albert, 188

Benton, Mike, 154

Bergman, Noah, 39

Berner, Robert, 36, 38, 39, 44, 99, 140, 141, 235

Birds

bipedalism, 166

bone pneumaticity, 181183, 185, 206

Cretaceous, 152, 173, 175, 178

endothermy, 145, 147, 150, 151, 174, 176, 178, 207

evolution, 1, 48, 121, 174, 178, 185, 199, 200, 202, 206207

first, 185

flight, 176, 178, 200, 206207

heart, 150

at high altitudes, 122

Jurassic, 174, 199, 202

reproduction, 122, 208, 212

respiratory system, ixx, 2728, 147, 148, 171, 172174, 176177, 179, 181, 184, 207

Bivalves

arthropods, 5657

brachiopods, 56, 81, 8283

low-oxygen-tolerant, 214216

mollusks, 22, 23, 27, 65, 68, 69, 70, 159, 163, 199, 214216

Black Sea, 16, 35, 142

Blood pigments, 13, 1415, 263.

See also Circulatory system

Body plans of animals

anterior and posterior design, 12

appendages/protrusions, 12, 20, 23, 59

aquatic, 214221



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