be desired. And it certainly is a far cry from Asimov’s psychohistory. Psychohistory quantified not only the interactions between individuals in groups, but also the interactions among groups, exhibiting bewildering cultural diversity. Today’s nonfictional anthropologists have used game theory to demonstrate such cultural diversity, but it’s something else again to ask game theory to explain it. Yet if sociophysics is to become psychohistory, it must be able to cope with the global potpourri of human cultural behaviors, and achieving that goal will no doubt require game theory.

At first glance, the prospects for game theory encompassing the totality of cultural diversity seem rather bleak. Especially in its most basic form, the ingredients for a science of human sociality seem to be missing. People are not totally rational beings acting purely out of self-interest as traditional game theory presumes, for example. Individuals playing games against other individuals make choices colored by emotion. And societies develop radically different cultural patterns of collective behavior. No Code of Nature dictates a universal psychology that guides civilizations along similar cultural paths.

As Jenna Bednar and Scott Page of the University of Michigan have described it, game theory would seem hopeless as a way to account for the defining hallmarks of cultural behavior. “Game theory,” they write, “assumes isolated, context-free strategic environments and optimal behavior within them.”12 But human cultures aren’t like that. Within a culture, people behave in similar, fairly consistent ways. But behavior differs dramatically from one culture to the next. And whatever the culture, behavior is typically not optimal, in the sense of maximizing self-interest. When incentives change, behavior often remains stubbornly stuck to cultural norms. All these features of culture run counter to some basic notions of game theory.

“Cultural differences—the rich fabric of religions, languages, art, law, morals, customs, and beliefs that diversifies societies—and their impact would seem to be at odds with the traditional game theoretic assumption of optimizing behavior,” say Bednar and Page. “Thus, game theory would seem to be at a loss to explain the



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