16. Colin Camerer, interview in Santa Monica, June 17, 2003.


17. Paul Zak, interview in Claremont, Calif., August 4, 2003.



1. Werner Güth, Rolf Schmittberger, and Bernd Schwarze, “An Experimental Analysis of Ultimatum Bargaining,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 3 (December 1982): 367–388.


2. Jörgen Weibull, “Testing Game Theory,” p. 2. Available online at http://swopec.hhs.se/hastef/papers/hastef0382.pdf.


3. Ibid., p. 5.


4. Ibid., p. 17.


5. Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate, Viking, New York, 2002, p. 102.


6. Isaac Asimov, Prelude to Foundation, Bantam Books, New York, 1989, p. 10.


7. Ibid., pp. 11–12.


8. Ibid., p. 12.


9. Robert Boyd, interview in Los Angeles, Calif., April 14, 2004.


10. Some of the ultimatum game results were especially perplexing, in particular the first round of games played in Mongolia. Francisco J. Gil-White, of the University of Pennsylvania, was confused by the pattern of offers and rejections—until discovering that some players didn’t believe they would actually receive real money. In another incident, he was puzzled by the rejection of a generous offer. It turned out the player thought Gil-White was an impoverished graduate student. By rejecting all offers, the player reasoned, he would ensure all the money was given back to Gil-White.


11. Joseph Henrich, telephone interview, May 13, 2004.


12. Colin Camerer, interview in Pasadena, Calif., March 12, 2004.


13. Ibid.


14. Robert Boyd, interview in Los Angeles, Calif., April 14, 2004.


15. Colin Camerer, interview in Pasadena, Calif., March 12, 2004.


16. David J. Buller, “Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor’s New Paradigm,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9 (June 2005): 277–283.


17. Not surprisingly, evolutionary psychologists have reacted negatively to Buller’s criticisms, contending that he distorts the evidence he cites. You can find some of their counterarguments online at http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/research/cep/buller.htm.


18. Ira Black, remarks at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, Florida, November 3, 2002. Black died in early 2006.


19. Steven Quartz and Terrence Sejnowski, Liars, Lovers, and Heroes, William Morrow, New York, 2002, pp. 41, 46.

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