
A
A Beautiful Mind (Nasar), vi, 2, 54, 246
A Few Good Men (film), 144, 145
Abbott, Derek, 193
Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, 34
Agricultural policy, 16
Al Qaeda, v
Alexander, Richard, 86
AltaVista, 158
Altruism, 3, 77, 85–86, 87–88, 90, 92, 107, 111, 117, 161, 162
Ancient Law (Maine), 19
Anger, 104
Animal House (film), 144
Animals
rationality, 241
Anthropology.
See also Cultural evolution
experimental economic, 165
game theory applications, 3, 8
Antimatter, 8
Arthur, Brian, 176
Asimov, Isaac, v–vi, vii, 1, 8, 9, 30, 42, 109, 113, 125, 126–127, 163, 164, 165, 176
Astronomy, 130
Astrophysics, 7
Au (Papua New Guinea), 117
Aumann, Robert, 71
B
Bacon, Kevin, 144–145, 149, 154–155, 157
Barabási, AlbertLászló, 156, 157, 158, 160
Battle of the sexes, 61
Bayes, Thomas, 203
Bayes’ theorem, 203
Baylor College of Medicine, 97, 104
Beausoleil, Raymond, 194
Behavioral Game Theory (Camerer), 69
Behavioral game theory.
See also Neuroeconomics
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Index
A
A Beautiful Mind (Nasar), vi, 2, 54, 246
A Few Good Men (film), 144, 145
Abbott, Derek, 193
Aché (Paraguay), 116–117
Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, 34
Age of Reason, 9, 12
Agricultural policy, 16
Al Qaeda, v
Albert, Réka, 156, 157, 160
Alexander, Richard, 86
AltaVista, 158
Altruism, 3, 77, 85–86, 87–88, 90, 92, 107, 111, 117, 161, 162
Ancient Law (Maine), 19
Anger, 104
Animal House (film), 144
Animals
cooperation, 76–77, 85
neuroeconomic studies, 99–100
rationality, 241
Anthropology.
See also Cultural evolution
experimental economic, 165
game theory applications, 3, 8
Antimatter, 8
Arthur, Brian, 176
Asimov, Isaac, v–vi, vii, 1, 8, 9, 30, 42, 109, 113, 125, 126–127, 163, 164, 165, 176
Astronomy, 130
Astrophysics, 7
ATP, 160–162
Au (Papua New Guinea), 117
Aumann, Robert, 71
Axelrod, Robert, 88, 89
B
Bacon, Kevin, 144–145, 149, 154–155, 157
Ball, Philip, 128, 129, 130
Barabási, AlbertLászló, 156, 157, 158, 160
Bargaining problem, 55–56, 66
Battle of the sexes, 61
Bayes, Thomas, 203
Bayes’ theorem, 203
Baylor College of Medicine, 97, 104
Beausoleil, Raymond, 194
Bednar, Jenna, 178–179, 180
Behavioral Game Theory (Camerer), 69
Behavioral game theory.
See also Neuroeconomics
applications, general, 2–4, 6–7, 8, 71, 108
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computational modeling of cognitive processes, 97–102
emotions and, 95, 96–97
fight or flight response, 94–95
genetics and, 102, 112, 122–123
Newtonian physics and, 12
prediction of human behavior, 111
and probability distributions, 141–142
relevance to social interactions, 96–97, 108, 142, 174–175
risk taking, 101–102
ultimatum game, 92, 103–106, 110
Behaviorists, 93–94
Bell, E. T., 197
Bell Labs, 204
Belushi, John, 144
Benatar, Pat, 221
Bentham, Jeremy, 30–31, 38, 237
Bernoulli, Daniel, 31, 40, 136, 237
Bernouilli, Jacob, 204
Bernoulli, Nicholas, 31
Berns, Gregory, 94–95, 100–101
Berra, Yogi, 176
Biology.
See also Evolutionary game theory
relevance of game theory, 75–77
Black, Ira, 122
Black, Karen, 155
Black holes, 8
The Blank Slate (Pinker), 112
Body Mass Index, 132
Boltzmann, Ludwig, 139, 142
Borel, Émile, 33
Borgs, Christian, 158, 159, 160
Bowles, Samuel, 3, 37, 59, 90, 91
Boyd, Robert, 90, 115, 118, 119
Brain
anterior cingulate cortex, 104
“cheating detection” module, 120–121
chemistry, 94–97, 100–101
computational modeling of cognitive processes, 97–102, 109
conflict monitoring region, 104
cooperationrelated activity, 107
development, 6, 8
economicsrelated chemistry and processes, 94–95, 99–102, 105
imaging, 94, 98–99, 101, 105, 242
as impartial spectator, 23
insula, 103–104
lateral intraparietal cortex, 99
mirror neurons, 107
modularity in functions, 120–121
nucleus accumbens, 102
plasticity, 121–122
trustrelated activity, 103–106
Bronowski, Jacob, 13–14
Brouwer, Luitzen, 58
Brush, Stephen, 136
Buccleuch, Duke of, 15
Buckle, Henry Thomas, 126, 137–138, 139
Buller, David, 120–121, 243
C
C. elegans, 153, 157, 245
Caltech, 11, 22, 117, 118
Cambridge University, 73, 77, 82
Camerer, Colin, 11–12, 22–23, 69, 92, 96–97, 104, 108, 117, 118, 119–120, 125, 141, 175
Cancer, 162
Capitalism, 17, 23
Card, Orson Scott, 217
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Carnegie Institute of Technology, 51, 54–55
Čech, Eduard, 35
Center for Neural Science, 99
Center for Neuroeconomics Studies, 105
Challet, Damien, 176
Chayes, Jennifer Tour, 158–160
Cheating detection, 120–121
Chemical reactions, 7, 57, 60
Chen, KayYut, 194
Chess, 32–33, 68
Chicken, game of, 61, 182
Child abuse, stepchildren, 120
Claremont Graduate University, 105, 106
Clausius, Rudolf, 136, 139, 140
Cliffe Leslie, Thomas Edward, 18–19
Clock, mechanical, 128–129, 236–237
Coalitions, 54, 58.
See also Cooperation
Code breaking, 191–192, 195
Code of Nature
Asimov’s psychohistory, vii, 8–9, 109, 113–114, 164, 181, 199, 219
cultural diversity and, 109, 178
Darwinian evolution and, 24–26, 72, 77
defined, 14, 164
game theory and, 38, 49–50, 220, 223–224
genetic endowment and, 113, 223
law of the jungle, 19, 72, 75, 83
modern search for, 219–220
Morelly’s philosophy, 236
Nash equilibrium and, 52, 223
network math and, 145, 163
neuroeconomics and, 92, 102, 106–109
probability theory and, 199
quantum mechanics and, 195
Roman Jus Gentium, 19, 236
Smith’s invisible hand, 17–21
statistical mechanics and, 128, 163
Coin tossing games, 140–142, 182–183, 248
Cold War, 3
Collective machine learning systems, 200
Columbia University, 174
Communication
entropy in, 205–206
quantifying, 204–205
quantum, 189–192, 247
of strategy, 193–194
Competition, 6, 13, 24, 25, 160, 161, 166, 195
Complexity and complex systems, 6, 24, 149, 163, 236–237.
See also Networks
Computational modeling of cognitive processes, 97–102, 109
Computers
digital, 29, 185, 219
nanosized, 200
quantum, 183, 185–186, 187, 191–192
rudimentary, 197
Comte, Auguste, 244
Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen (film), 155
Conflict monitoring, brain region, 104
Conflict strategy, 70, 104
Cooperation
animals, 76–77, 85
bargaining problem, 55–56, 66
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brain activity during, 107
evolution of, 76–77, 79–83, 85–92, 107, 161–162
gossip about reputation and, 87, 89
language and, 85–87
largescale, 86
longterm, 71
manyplayer, 60, 66
nonkin, 85–87
Prisoner’s Dilemma, 63, 71, 88, 163
public goods game, 64, 90–92
punishment and, 90–92, 103
repeatedgames approach, 71, 163
selfishness and, 106–107, 162
snowdrift game, 163
spatially structured, 162, 163
titfortat strategies, 87–90
Coordinated solutions to social problems, 70–71, 190, 194, 200
Cornell University, 166, 174
Cosmology, 6
Creationism, 24
Crowd behavior, 169
Crowe, Russell, 2
Cruz, Penelope, 145
Cultural diversity
and Code of Nature, 109, 178
and economic game theory, 117
and rationality, 115
and sociophysics, 177–181
and strategy, 114–119, 178–180
Cultural evolution, 7
crosscultural comparison, 113–115
nature vs. nurture controversy, 121–124
research funding, 165
and strategy, 111–112, 116–117, 124, 220
ultimatum game, 114–115
D
Darwin, Charles, 14, 24–26, 78, 86
Davis, Morton, 239
de Moivre, Abraham, 244
Decision theory, 198, 212, 249
Democracy, 173, 195
Descartes, René, 129
Descent of Man (Darwin), 24
Dictatorship, 172, 173
Digital cameras, 1
Disgust, 104
Dodds, Peter, 174
Dopamine, 97, 101
Dresher, Melvin, 240
Drug addiction, 102
Duffin, R. L., 51
Durocher, Leo, 86
E
Eastwood, Clint, 83
Economic game theory.
See also Econophysics;
Neuroeconomics
applications, general, 2, 3, 6, 11, 22, 27, 34–36, 68, 71–72
assumptions, 111, 117
bargaining problem, 55–56
behavioral, 22
cultural diversity and, 117
division of labor, 25, 108
evolutionary analogies, 24–26, 165
Gilligan’s Island model, 37, 41, 54, 58
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Manhattan Island model, 58
Nash equilibrium, 32, 60
Nobel laureates, 52, 70–71
quantum principles, 189
physics and, 165, 167, 180–181
representative agent model and, 108
Robinson Crusoe (neoclassical) model, 37–39, 41, 54, 58
Smith’s system, 9, 12–14, 17–21, 25
social preferences and, 111–112
utility and strategy, 31, 37–43, 95, 104–105
von Neumann–Morgenstern approach, 28, 30, 34, 35–40, 42, 47, 49–50, 51, 52–54, 60, 75, 95, 185, 217, 237
Economic growth, trust and, 106
Econophysics, 165, 167, 180–181
Einstein, Albert, 2, 75, 192, 219
Emory University, 115
Emotions.
See also specific emotions computational analysis of brain activity, 97–98
games and, 95, 96–97
negative, 104
and rationality, 95–96, 97, 115
Ender’s Game (Card), 217–218
Ensminger, Jean, 117–118
Environment
behavioral response to, 121–124
evolutionary landscape, 83–85
Equilibrium.
See also Nash equilibrium
massaction interpretation, 57, 221, 240
principle and examples, 56–57
Erdös, Paul, 148, 149
Eton College, 77
Euler, Leonhard, 148
Evolutionary economics, 24–26, 165
Evolutionary game theory
altruism problem, 85–86, 87
applications, general, vii, 3, 6, 14, 72, 160–161
and Code of Nature, 24–26, 72, 77
combinatorial language, 85–86
cooperative behavior, 76–77, 79–83, 85–92, 107, 161–162
Darwinism and, 24–26, 72, 76, 77
duck experiment, 73–75
eavesdroppers, 81–83
hawkdove game, 79–83
landscape, 83–85
matrix, 80
Nash equilibrium and, 74–75, 80, 83, 89, 124, 222, 241
natural selection, 78
and networks, 151, 157–158, 159–163, 222
Paley’s intelligent design, 24, 25–26, 236–237
Prisoner’s Dilemma, 87, 88, 107, 161–162
quantum mechanics and, 195
relevance of, 76–77
snowdrift game, 162–163
and social networks, 159–160, 162–163
strategies, 78, 79, 81–82, 86–90, 107, 124–125
utility (fitness), 78–79, 83–85, 88, 158, 161
Evolutionary psychology
criticisms of, 119–122, 223, 243
game theory and, 113
nature vs. nurture controversy, 121–122
principles, 112–113
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F
Fads, 171, 173
Fairness, 63, 110, 111, 116, 119
Farner, Doyne, 180
Fermat, Pierre, 130, 197
Fight or flight response, 94–95
Fixedpoint theorems, 58–59
Flitney, Adrian, 193
Flood, Merrill, 240
Foundation Trilogy (Asimov), v, vii, 1, 4–5, 9, 34, 113, 246
Fourier, John Baptiste Joseph, 132
Freemarket economy, 17–18
Free will, 134–135, 138, 169
French Revolution, 129
Freud, Sigmund, 93–94, 97, 219
G
Galam, Serge, 166–167, 171
Galileo, 36, 129
Game Physics, 215
Game theory.
See also individual disciplines
acceptance of, 52–54
applications, generally, vi–viii, 2–9, 13, 21, 27, 49, 52, 53, 67, 70, 71–72, 220, 221–222;
see also individual disciplines
and Code of Nature, 38, 49–50, 220
defined, vi
and information theory, 200, 212
minimax theorem, 43–49, 58, 239
modeling human interactions, 68–69
and networks, 145, 159–163
origin, 2, 26, 27, 28, 30, 185
potential today, 66–72, 223–224
and prediction of outcomes, 66–67, 211–213
principles, 2–3, 138
probability theory and, 140–142, 198, 199–202, 208–214
and psychology, 215
random factors, 32, 34, 48
rational behavior, 21, 67, 69
relevance to real life, 67–68
statistical physics and, vi, 4–5, 6, 7, 39–43, 128, 199–202, 221
strategy, 30, 32–34, 42
utility, 22, 30–31, 37–38
Gases, kinetic theory of, 127–128, 135–140, 201
Gauss, Carl Friedrich, 131, 244
Gaussian distribution, 131, 139, 244, 249
GellMann, Murray, 240
Genetics.
See also Evolutionary psychology
and behavioral predispositions, 102, 112, 122–123
and Code of Nature, 113
Gibbs, J. Willard, 142
Gintis, Herbert, 2–3, 4, 72, 90, 91
Glimcher, Paul, 99
Gnau (Papua New Guinea), 117
Google, 158
Gossip, 72, 75, 87, 89
Göttingen Mathematical Society, 33
Gould, Stephen Jay, 24–26
Graph theory, 143, 145, 148.
See also Networks
Graunt, John, 129
Gravity, law of, 60, 135
Greed, 90
Greene, Joshua, 224
Guare, John, 146
Gusev, Dmitri, v
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H
Hadza (Tanzania), 117
Haldane, J. B. S., 77, 85
Hall, Monty, 40
Harambee, 118
Harper, David, 73–74
Harsanyi, John, 2
Harvard University, 112
Hawkdove game, 79–83, 228–229, 241, 246
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 71
Henrich, Joe, 114–115
Herbie:
Fully Loaded (film), 155
Herschel, John, 137
History of Civilization in England (Buckle), 137
Hobbes, Thomas, 20, 129
Hogg, Tad, 194
Holt, Charles, 63
Hopper, Dennis, 155, 157, 245
Houser, Daniel, 66
HP Labs, 194
Human nature.
See also Code of Nature
fragmented view of, 118–119
nature of, 112–113
universality doctrine, 120–121
Hume, David, 14, 31, 106, 219
Hurwicz, Leonid, 53
Hutcheson, Francis, 237
I
Ignorance, 205–208, 211–214
Impartial spectator, 23
Incomplete information, 66
Indirect reciprocity, 86–88
Infinite series, summing, 29
Information revolution, 219
Information theory, 8, 200, 201, 202–208, 212
Institute for Advanced Study, 35, 55, 75–76
Intelligent design, 6, 24, 25–26
International relations, 70
Internet, 146, 149, 158, 160
Iqbal, Azhar, 195
Irrationality, 22, 66
quantification of, 212–214
Ising, Ernst, 170, 173
J
Jaynes, Edwin, 201, 204, 206, 207
Jealousy, 120
Johns Hopkins University, 11
Johnson, Neil F., 182
Johnstone, Rufus, 82
K
Kakutani, Shizuo, 58
Kenney, George, 45–46
Kevin Bacon game, 144–146, 149
Kinetic theory of gases, 127–128, 135–140, 168–169, 175, 210
Knockaround Guys (film), 155
Krueger, Alan, 18
Kuang, LeMan, 192, 193
Kuhn, Harold, 60
Kurzban, Robert, 66
L
La Rochefoucauld, 110
Lamalera (Indonesia), 117
Landscape, evolutionary, 83–85
Language, 85–87
Lanzhou University, 246
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Laplace, Pierre Simon, 130–131, 132, 139, 204, 248
Law of the jungle, 19, 72, 75, 83
Le Her, 32
Lee, Chiu Fan, 182
Lee, Christopher, 155
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von, 27
Let’s Make a Deal (TV), 40–41
Leviathan (Hobbes), 129
Liars, Lovers, and Heroes (Sejnowski and Quartz), 122
Life sciences, merger with physical sciences, 6, 8
Logic, 30, 68, 118
Lohan, Lindsay, 155
Louis XV, 16
M
MacArthur Foundation, 115
Machiguenga (Peru), 114–115, 116, 220
Magnetic resonance imaging, 98–99, 105, 192, 242
Magnetism, 169–173
Maine, Henry, 19, 236
The Maltese Falcon (film), 110
Marx, Karl, 20
Mass action, law of, 57
Mass extinctions, 171
Matching pennies game, 61, 141
Maximum entropy principle, 201–202, 205–206, 213–214
Maxwell, James Clerk, 127–128, 135–140, 142, 168–169, 175, 219
Maynard Smith, John, 77–78, 85, 241
Mazlish, Bruce, 13–14
McFee, Bruce, 155
McGill University, 123
Meyer, David, 185–188, 189, 190
Mice, tailtest reaction, 122–124
Microsoft, 158, 185, 187, 189
Milgram, Stanley, 146
Minimax theorem, 33, 34, 43–49, 58, 237, 239
Minority game, 175, 176–177
Mogil, Jeffrey, 123, 124
Montague, Read, 4, 94–95, 97–99, 100–101, 104, 105, 106
Moore, Demi, 144
Moral philosophy, 15
Morgenstern, Oskar, 26, 27, 34–36, 37–40, 42, 49–50, 51, 52–53, 55, 60, 95, 217, 220
Motions, laws of, 135
Multipleperson games, 53–54, 208
Myerson, Roger, 51, 52
N
NASA Ames Research Center, 4, 199, 209
Nasar, Sylvia, vi, 2, 29, 54, 246
Nash, John Forbes, vi, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 29, 50, 51–52, 54–56, 59–61, 66, 70, 140, 164, 220, 221
Nash equilibrium, 111, 142
acceptance of, 59, 125
assumptions and calculations, 125, 209, 225–229
bargaining problem, 55–56, 66
and Code of Nature, 52
and conflict strategy, 70, 104
dissertation, 59–61
economic game theory and, 32, 60, 220, 240
evolutionary game theory and, 74–75, 80, 83, 89, 124, 223, 241
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fixedpoint theorems and, 58–59
gas laws and, 140, 201
hawkdove game, 228–229
Hobbes’s social preferences as, 129
limitations, 209
network, 163, 166
payoff matrix, 62
principle, 57–58
Prisoner’s Dilemma, 61–64
probability theory and, 199, 200, 208–209, 212
public goods game, 61, 64–66
quantum mechanics and, 187
in social interactions, 175
zerosum game, 225–227
National Science Foundation, 115, 165
Natural law, 19, 128.
See also Code of Nature
Natural selection, 24–25, 78.
See also Evolutionary game theory
Nature vs. nurture controversy, 121–124
Networks.
See also Social networks actors, 144–145, 153, 154–155–156, 157, 245
airline, 155
applications, 147–148, 149, 151, 160–161, 166
biochemical, 151, 160–161
clusters/clustering coefficient, 149, 152, 153–154, 157
and Code of Nature, 145, 163
commonalities, 151
competitive interactions, 160, 161, 166
degree coefficient, 154
degrees of separation, 145–146, 149, 154, 155–156
evolution, 151, 157–158, 159–163
game theory and, 145, 159–163, 222, 235
growth, 151, 157, 163, 167–168
hubs, 154, 155, 157, 161
Internet, 146, 149, 158, 160
Kevin Bacon game, 144–146, 149
links, 148–149, 150, 152, 155, 156, 158–159
mathematical models, 153–154, 159
Nash equilibrium, 163
in nature, 151, 153, 158, 160–161
neural, 151, 153, 157
nodes, 148, 150, 151, 152, 154, 155–156
origins, 148, 149–151
path length, 153, 154
power grids, 157
and power laws, 156–157
preferential attachment, 157, 158, 160, 163
and quantum physics, 235
random connections, 148, 149, 152, 154, 155–156
regular lattice, 151–152, 154, 155
scalefree, 156–157, 159, 163, 246
selforganization, 157
smallworld (intermediate) model, 149–153, 154, 156, 157, 158
statistical mechanics and, 5, 143, 145, 163, 166, 180
strategy, 161–162
strongly connected components, 159
ubiquitousness, 146–147, 153, 159
World Wide Web, 147, 149–150, 157, 158–159, 160
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Neurobiology.
See also Brain game theory applications, 3, 6, 8
Neuroeconomics, 174
animal studies, 99–100
brain chemistry and processes, 94–95, 99–102, 105
and Code of Nature, 92, 102, 106–109
hormone changes, 105–106
landmark research, 99, 106
principles, 3–4
risk takers (matchers) vs. conservatives (optimizers), 101–102
trustrelated brain activity, 103–106
utility, 99–100
New York University, 99
Newton, Isaac, 2, 21, 26, 35, 69, 135
Newtonian determinism, 130
Newtonian physics, 12, 21, 128, 129, 130
Noncooperative games
math for, 200
Nash’s theory, 51, 52, 59–61
and statistical physics, 201
Northern Illinois University, 120
Northwestern University, 11
Notre Dame University, 156
Nowak, Martin, 75–76, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90
O
Opinion formation and transmission, 167–168, 169, 171–173, 174
Origin of Species (Darwin), 24, 26
Orma (Kenya), 116, 117–118, 220
Osama bin Laden, vi
Oxytocin, 105–106
P
Pacheco, Jorge, 163
Pack behavior, 169, 171
Page, Scott, 178–179, 180
Paley, William, 24, 25–26
Paradoxes
perfect future knowledge, 34–35
Pascal, Blaise, 130, 197–198, 248
Pelorat, Janov, 5
Penny flipping game, 61, 141, 182–183, 186–189, 208
Perfect future knowledge, 34–35
Perfect information, 33
Petty, William, 129
Pfeiffer, Thomas, 160, 161
Phase transitions, 169, 170, 171
Physics.
See also Newtonian physics;
Sociophysics;
Statistical mechanics
and economic game thoery, 165, 167, 180–181
game theory applications, 4, 7, 8, 36
Physiocrats, 15, 16
Pinker, Steven, 112–113
Platt, Michael, 99
Pocket calculators, 1
Poe, Edgar Allan, 61
Poisson, SiméonDenis, 132
Poker, 30, 68, 75, 239
bluffing, 43, 48
Political economy, 12, 17, 20–21, 25
Political science, 3
Power laws, 156–157
Prediction of human behavior, 111
Preference. See Social preferences;
Utility
Preferential attachment, 157, 158, 160, 163
Price, George, 77–78, 241
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Princeton University, 2, 18, 35, 51, 55, 100, 106, 224
Principia (Newton), 35, 69, 129, 219
Prisoner’s Dilemma, 61–64, 71, 87, 88, 107, 161–162, 163, 189, 192, 193, 240
Probability distributions
adjustment, 214–215
in game theory, 140–142, 209–210
of gas molecules, 140–142
measuring uncertainty in, 205–207
of mixed strategies, 140, 200, 208, 210–211, 215, 238
quantum mechanics and, 196
Probability theory, 130–131, 132.
See also Statistics
applications, 208
early pioneers, 204, 248
and game theory, 140–142, 198, 199–202, 208–214
ignorance and, 205–208, 211
and information theory, 202–208
inventor, 197–198
and Nash equilibrium, 199, 200, 208–209
objective view, 203–204
Pascal’s wager, 198, 211, 248
and psychohistory, 199, 214–215, 221
role in science, 197, 198–199, 202–203
and statistical physics, 142, 199, 220–221, 247
subjective view, 202–204
voting games, 214
Profit maximization. See Utility
Psychohistory, vi.
See also Sociophysics
Code of Nature model, vii, 8–9, 109, 113–114, 164, 181, 199, 219
hybrid research disciplines, 164–165
and manipulation of society, 174
probability theory and, 199, 214–215, 215, 221
and statistical mechanics, 4–5, 42, 125, 126–128, 178, 219
Psychology, 3, 69, 215.
See also Evolutionary psychology
Public goods game, 61, 64–66, 90–92, 117–118, 194
Punishment, 90–92, 103, 107, 116, 242
Purdue University, 214
Q
Quantum communications, 189–192
Quantum game theory, vii, 7, 181
applications, 185, 189–190, 193–194
and Code of Nature, 195
communication systems, 189–192, 247
and evolutionary game theory, 195
Nash equilibrium, 187
origins, 185–189
penny flipping game, 182–183, 186–189, 247
Prisoner’s Dilemma, 189, 192, 193
public goods game, 194
quantum computing and, 183, 185–186, 187
strategies, 185, 187, 188–189, 193, 195
voting application, 185, 190, 194–196
Quantum information physics, 187–188
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Quantum mechanics
entanglement, 192–194, 195, 247
mathematical formulation, 29
multiple realities, 183, 184–185, 196
observation effects (decoherence), 184–185, 193
probability distributions, 196
pure and mixed states, 186
qubits, 187, 190–192
von Neumann and, 29, 185–186
Quartz, Steven, 122
Queen of Blood (film), 155
Quesnay, François, 15–16, 17, 125
Quetelet, Adolphe, 131, 132–134, 136–137, 138, 139, 199, 219
R
Rand Corporation, 2, 29, 246
Random
factors, 32, 34, 48
network connections, 148, 149, 152, 154, 155–156
number generator, 48
Rapoport, Anatol, 88, 245
Rathbone, Basil, 155
Rationality, 12
animals, 241
culture and, 115
defined, 67
emotions and, 95–96, 97, 115
game theory and, 21, 67, 69, 209
limited or bounded, 201, 209
natural selection as, 78
Reciprocal altruism, 86
Rényi, Alfréd, 148, 149
Repeatedgames approach, 71, 163
Reputation, 87, 89
Reward, brain processes, 99–100, 107
Ricardo, David, 31
Risk taking, 101–102
Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 122
Roth, Alvin, 63
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 70
Rubenstein, Ariel, 68
Russell, Bertrand, 197
Rustichini, Aldo, 106
S
Samuelson, Paul, 52–53
Sanfey, Alan, 103–104
Santa Fe Institute, 165, 176, 180, 200
Santos, Francisco, 163
Savage, Leonard, 211–212, 249
Schelling, Thomas, 70–71
Schuster, Stefan, 160, 161
Schweber, Silvan, 24
“Science of man,” 14
Sejnowski, Terrence, 122
Seldon, Hari, v–vi, 1, 4–5, 30, 34, 42, 113–114, 125, 137, 163, 174, 219
Selfinterest/selfishness, 12, 21–23, 25, 31, 63, 69, 76, 104, 106–107, 110, 111–112, 116, 161, 162, 178
Selforganization, 157
Selten, Reinhard, 2
Set theory, 30, 33
Shannon, Claude, 204–205
Shor, Peter, 191
Shubik, Martin, 180–181
Sigmund, Karl, 87, 88
Simon, Herbert, 53
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Skinner, B. F., 98
Smallworld model, 149–153, 154, 156, 157, 158
Smith, Adam, 9, 12–26, 31, 35, 78, 106–107, 128, 219
Smith, Eric, 180–181
Smith, Roger, 11, 20–21
Snowdrift game, 162–163
“So long sucker” game, 61
Social cognitive neuroscience, 165
Social interactions.
See also Social networks
behavioral game theory and, 96–97, 108, 142, 174–175
magnetism analogy, 169–173
minority game, 175, 176–177
modeling, 68–69
molecular collision analogy, 153, 166, 168, 173, 201, 210
Nash equilibrium, 175
opinion formation and transmission, 167–168, 169, 171–173, 174
pack/crowd behavior, 170, 171
Social networks
acceptance of research on, 167
clustering property, 154, 157
contagion model, 173–175
degrees of separation, 145–146
evolutionary game theory and, 159–160, 162–163
growth of, 167–168, 224
links between nodes, 148–149
mathematical modeling, 159
Nash equilibrium and, 166
power laws and, 157
smallworld property, 151
and statistical mechanics, 166
terrorist, 167
Social physics, 244.
See also Sociophysics
Social preferences, 111–112, 129
Social sciences, 3
Buckle’s philosophy, 137–138
crime rates, 133–134
and game theory, 30, 38, 50, 53, 70, 119, 180
Hobbes theory, 129
longterm cooperative behavior, 71
metaphysical vs. scientific approach, 137–138
physics and, 132–135, 142–143
and statistics, 5, 129–132, 133–134, 138–139
Social validation model, 171–173
Sociobiology, 120, 223.
See also Evolutionary psychology
Socionomics, 165
Sociophysics.
See also Psychohistory computer simulations, 180
cultural diversity and, 177–181
and game theory, 175–177
magnetism analogy, 169–173
Nash equilibrium and, 60, 200
networks and, 145, 163, 166
and physics, 60
probability theory and, 132–135
Quetelet’s average man, 133, 139
resistance to, 166–169
statistical mechanics, 142–143, 165, 166, 168–169, 174, 175, 199, 200, 210
temperature of society/players, 39–43, 165, 169, 173, 213, 214, 249
Specialization, 25, 78, 108
Spite, 63, 111
Stability. See Nash equilibrium
Stag hunt game, 61
Stalemate, 172
Stanford University, 61
Star Trek:
The Next Generation (TV), 182–183, 188
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Statistical mechanics (physics)
applications, 128, 132–143, 166, 219, 221
and Asimov’s psychohistory, 4–5, 42, 125, 126–128, 178, 219
canonical ensemble, 207–208
and Code of Nature, 128, 163
game theory and, vi, 4–5, 6, 7, 39–43, 128, 199–202
and kinetic theory of gases, 127–128, 135–140, 168–169, 175, 200, 210, 221
and maximum entropy principle, 201–202, 205–206, 213–214
meanfield theory, 175
network math and, 5, 143, 145, 163, 166, 180
noncooperative games and, 201
of phase transitions, 169, 170, 171
predictive powers, 127, 211–212
and probability theory, 142, 199, 220–221, 247
and social interactions, 142–143, 165–166, 174, 175, 199
Statistics.
See also Probability theory
Bayesian, 203
free will and, 134–135, 138
Gaussian distribution, 131, 139
interpreting, 134
measurement error, 130–131, 133, 139, 203
probability distributions, 140–142
and probability theory, 130–131, 132
Quetelet’s average man, 133
social, 128–132
uncertainties, 131
Stauffer, Dietrich, 164, 173
Steiger, Rod, 154, 245
Stewart, Dugald, 20, 24
Stock market crashes, 171
Strategies.
See also Cooperation;
Noncooperative games
advantageous arrangement, 32–33, 49
altruism, 3, 77, 85–86, 87–88, 90, 92, 107, 111, 117, 161, 162
betrayal, 61–64
coalitions, 54, 58, 66
communication of, 193–194
conflict, 70, 83
cost of computing, 212–213
cultural diversity and, 114–119, 178–180
cultural evolution and, 111–112, 116–117, 124
defection, 64–66, 87, 88, 89, 90, 107, 193
defined, 42
eavesdropping, 81–83
in economic theory, 37, 42–43, 104–105
evolutionary, 78, 79, 81–82, 86–90, 107, 124–125
freeriding, 64–66, 90, 194
generous titfortat, 89
mathematical principles, 32–33
minimax approach, 32, 43–49, 239
military example, 45–46
mixed, 42–44, 46–49, 54, 58, 64, 65–66, 80, 81, 91, 108, 118, 124, 140, 199, 220, 238, 239
network, 161–162
nonzerosum games, 44
payoff matrix, 44–46, 49, 62, 80
population proportion and, 80
probability distributions, 140, 200, 208, 210–211, 215, 238
pure, 42–44, 220
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quantum game theory, 185, 187, 188–189, 193, 195
random selection of, 48, 49, 141142
reciprocation, 64, 65–65, 86–87, 90–92, 117
rules for behavior, 42–43, 179–180
selfinterest/selfishness, 12, 21–23, 25, 31, 63, 69, 76, 104, 106–107, 110, 111–112, 116, 161, 162, 180, 194
social norms and expectations and, 194
social preferences and, 111–112
spectating, 81–83
strong reciprocity, 90
terrorist, 72
titfortat, 87–90
zerosum games, 33, 43–44, 54
Strategy of Conflict (Schelling), 70
Strogatz, Steven, 149–151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 174
Sutherland, Donald, 155
Sympathy, 23, 107
SznajdWeron, Katarzyna, 169, 171–173
T
TelAviv University, 166
Tennis, 141–142
Terrorist networks, 167
Theory of everything, 7–8, 222
Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (von Neumann and Morgenstern), 26, 35–36, 51, 52–53, 68, 217
Theory of heat, 39–43, 136
Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 22–23, 24, 106–107
Thermodynamics, laws of, 60, 136, 210.
See also Theory of heat
Torguud Mongols, 116
Townsend, Charles, 15
Trust, 103–106, 107, 111
Tucker, Albert W., 55, 61–62, 240
U
Ultimatum game, 61, 92, 103–106, 110, 112, 114–117, 243
Universality doctrine, 120–121
University College London, 77
University of Berlin, 29, 30
University of Budapest, 29
University of California, Berkeley, 214
University of California, Los Angeles, 114, 118
University of California, San Diego, 185–186
University of Chicago, 11, 52, 78
University of Cologne, 173
University of Ghent, 132
University of Glasgow, 15
University of Hull, 195
University of Maryland, 70
University of Massachusetts, 37
University of Michigan, 88, 178
University of Minnesota, 106
University of Oxford, 15, 75
University of Vienna, 34, 76
University of Virginia, 145
University of Wroclaw, 169
University of Zurich, 29
Utilitarianism doctrine, 30–31
Utility
brain processes, 99, 100–101, 109
defined, 22, 23, 27, 30
dopamine as reward, 97, 101
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in economics, 31, 37–43, 95
emotions and, 96–97
evolutionary fitness, 78–79, 83–85, 88, 158, 161
mathematical quantification, 31–32, 39–43, 211–213, 237, 238
in neuroeconomics, 99–100
ranking (valuation), 40–41, 56
temperature analogy, 39–43
utilitarianism doctrine, 30–31
Utility theory, 237
V
Violence, spectating and, 81–83
von Neumann, John, 26, 28–30, 33, 34, 35–40, 42, 43, 47, 48, 49–50, 51, 52–54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 75, 95, 185–186, 217, 221, 237–238, 239, 242
Voting
behavior, 167–168, 174, 214
quantum game theory application, 185, 190, 194–196
W
Wald, Abraham, 249
Waldegrave, James, 32
Warfare, 83
Watts, Duncan, 144, 149, 152, 153, 157, 174
Wealth, 31
Wealth of Nations (Smith), 9, 12–14, 16, 17–22, 24, 106–107
Weber, Robert, 59
Weibull, Jörgen, 111–112
Wilson, Kenneth, 166
Winnertakesall game, 78
Wolfram, Stephen, 235, 236–237
Wolpert, David, 4, 6, 7–8, 199–201, 209–214, 215, 249
World War II, 45–46
World Wide Web, 7, 147, 149–150, 157, 158–159, 160
Wu, ZhiXi, 246
Y
Yale University, 180
Z
Zak, Paul, 105–106, 109
Zermelo, Ernst, 32–33
Zerosum games
equilibrium point, 58, 225–227
twoperson, 33, 43–50, 53, 54, 58, 60, 186
Zhang, YiCheng, 176
Zhou, Lan, 192, 193