Index

A

A Beautiful Mind (Nasar), vi, 2, 54, 246

A Few Good Men (film), 144, 145

Abbott, Derek, 193

Aché (Paraguay), 116117

Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, 34

Age of Reason, 9, 12

Agricultural policy, 16

Al Qaeda, v

Albert, Réka, 156, 157, 160

Alexander, Richard, 86

AltaVista, 158

Altruism, 3, 77, 8586, 8788, 90, 92, 107, 111, 117, 161, 162

Ancient Law (Maine), 19

Anger, 104

Animal House (film), 144

Animals

cooperation, 7677, 85

neuroeconomic studies, 99100

rationality, 241

Anthropology.

See also Cultural evolution

experimental economic, 165

game theory applications, 3, 8

Antimatter, 8

Arthur, Brian, 176

Asimov, Isaac, vvi, vii, 1, 8, 9, 30, 42, 109, 113, 125, 126127, 163, 164, 165, 176

Astronomy, 130

Astrophysics, 7

ATP, 160162

Au (Papua New Guinea), 117

Aumann, Robert, 71

Axelrod, Robert, 88, 89

B

Bacon, Kevin, 144145, 149, 154155, 157

Ball, Philip, 128, 129, 130

Barabási, Albert-László, 156, 157, 158, 160

Bargaining problem, 5556, 66

Battle of the sexes, 61

Bayes, Thomas, 203

Bayes’ theorem, 203

Baylor College of Medicine, 97, 104

Beausoleil, Raymond, 194

Bednar, Jenna, 178179, 180

Behavioral Game Theory (Camerer), 69

Behavioral game theory.

See also Neuroeconomics

applications, general, 24, 67, 8, 71, 108



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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature    Index A A Beautiful Mind (Nasar), vi, 2, 54, 246 A Few Good Men (film), 144, 145 Abbott, Derek, 193 Aché (Paraguay), 116–117 Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, 34 Age of Reason, 9, 12 Agricultural policy, 16 Al Qaeda, v Albert, Réka, 156, 157, 160 Alexander, Richard, 86 AltaVista, 158 Altruism, 3, 77, 85–86, 87–88, 90, 92, 107, 111, 117, 161, 162 Ancient Law (Maine), 19 Anger, 104 Animal House (film), 144 Animals cooperation, 76–77, 85 neuroeconomic studies, 99–100 rationality, 241 Anthropology. See also Cultural evolution experimental economic, 165 game theory applications, 3, 8 Antimatter, 8 Arthur, Brian, 176 Asimov, Isaac, v–vi, vii, 1, 8, 9, 30, 42, 109, 113, 125, 126–127, 163, 164, 165, 176 Astronomy, 130 Astrophysics, 7 ATP, 160–162 Au (Papua New Guinea), 117 Aumann, Robert, 71 Axelrod, Robert, 88, 89 B Bacon, Kevin, 144–145, 149, 154–155, 157 Ball, Philip, 128, 129, 130 Barabási, Albert-László, 156, 157, 158, 160 Bargaining problem, 55–56, 66 Battle of the sexes, 61 Bayes, Thomas, 203 Bayes’ theorem, 203 Baylor College of Medicine, 97, 104 Beausoleil, Raymond, 194 Bednar, Jenna, 178–179, 180 Behavioral Game Theory (Camerer), 69 Behavioral game theory. See also Neuroeconomics applications, general, 2–4, 6–7, 8, 71, 108

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature computational modeling of cognitive processes, 97–102 emotions and, 95, 96–97 fight or flight response, 94–95 genetics and, 102, 112, 122–123 Newtonian physics and, 12 prediction of human behavior, 111 and probability distributions, 141–142 relevance to social interactions, 96–97, 108, 142, 174–175 risk taking, 101–102 ultimatum game, 92, 103–106, 110 Behaviorists, 93–94 Bell, E. T., 197 Bell Labs, 204 Belushi, John, 144 Benatar, Pat, 221 Bentham, Jeremy, 30–31, 38, 237 Bernoulli, Daniel, 31, 40, 136, 237 Bernouilli, Jacob, 204 Bernoulli, Nicholas, 31 Berns, Gregory, 94–95, 100–101 Berra, Yogi, 176 Biology. See also Evolutionary game theory relevance of game theory, 75–77 Black, Ira, 122 Black, Karen, 155 Black holes, 8 The Blank Slate (Pinker), 112 Body Mass Index, 132 Boltzmann, Ludwig, 139, 142 Borel, Émile, 33 Borgs, Christian, 158, 159, 160 Bowles, Samuel, 3, 37, 59, 90, 91 Boyd, Robert, 90, 115, 118, 119 Brain anterior cingulate cortex, 104 “cheating detection” module, 120–121 chemistry, 94–97, 100–101 computational modeling of cognitive processes, 97–102, 109 conflict monitoring region, 104 cooperation-related activity, 107 development, 6, 8 economics-related chemistry and processes, 94–95, 99–102, 105 imaging, 94, 98–99, 101, 105, 242 as impartial spectator, 23 insula, 103–104 lateral intraparietal cortex, 99 mirror neurons, 107 modularity in functions, 120–121 nucleus accumbens, 102 plasticity, 121–122 trust-related activity, 103–106 Bronowski, Jacob, 13–14 Brouwer, Luitzen, 58 Brush, Stephen, 136 Buccleuch, Duke of, 15 Buckle, Henry Thomas, 126, 137–138, 139 Buller, David, 120–121, 243 C C. elegans, 153, 157, 245 Caltech, 11, 22, 117, 118 Cambridge University, 73, 77, 82 Camerer, Colin, 11–12, 22–23, 69, 92, 96–97, 104, 108, 117, 118, 119–120, 125, 141, 175 Cancer, 162 Capitalism, 17, 23 Card, Orson Scott, 217

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature Carnegie Institute of Technology, 51, 54–55 Čech, Eduard, 35 Center for Neural Science, 99 Center for Neuroeconomics Studies, 105 Challet, Damien, 176 Chayes, Jennifer Tour, 158–160 Cheating detection, 120–121 Chemical reactions, 7, 57, 60 Chen, Kay-Yut, 194 Chess, 32–33, 68 Chicken, game of, 61, 182 Child abuse, stepchildren, 120 Claremont Graduate University, 105, 106 Clausius, Rudolf, 136, 139, 140 Cliffe Leslie, Thomas Edward, 18–19 Clock, mechanical, 128–129, 236–237 Coalitions, 54, 58. See also Cooperation Code breaking, 191–192, 195 Code of Nature Asimov’s psychohistory, vii, 8–9, 109, 113–114, 164, 181, 199, 219 cultural diversity and, 109, 178 Darwinian evolution and, 24–26, 72, 77 defined, 14, 164 game theory and, 38, 49–50, 220, 223–224 genetic endowment and, 113, 223 law of the jungle, 19, 72, 75, 83 modern search for, 219–220 Morelly’s philosophy, 236 Nash equilibrium and, 52, 223 network math and, 145, 163 neuroeconomics and, 92, 102, 106–109 probability theory and, 199 quantum mechanics and, 195 Roman Jus Gentium, 19, 236 Smith’s invisible hand, 17–21 statistical mechanics and, 128, 163 Coin tossing games, 140–142, 182–183, 248 Cold War, 3 Collective machine learning systems, 200 Columbia University, 174 Communication entropy in, 205–206 quantifying, 204–205 quantum, 189–192, 247 of strategy, 193–194 Competition, 6, 13, 24, 25, 160, 161, 166, 195 Complexity and complex systems, 6, 24, 149, 163, 236–237. See also Networks Computational modeling of cognitive processes, 97–102, 109 Computers digital, 29, 185, 219 nanosized, 200 quantum, 183, 185–186, 187, 191–192 rudimentary, 197 Comte, Auguste, 244 Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen (film), 155 Conflict monitoring, brain region, 104 Conflict strategy, 70, 104 Cooperation animals, 76–77, 85 bargaining problem, 55–56, 66

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature brain activity during, 107 evolution of, 76–77, 79–83, 85–92, 107, 161–162 gossip about reputation and, 87, 89 language and, 85–87 large-scale, 86 long-term, 71 many-player, 60, 66 nonkin, 85–87 Prisoner’s Dilemma, 63, 71, 88, 163 public goods game, 64, 90–92 punishment and, 90–92, 103 repeated-games approach, 71, 163 selfishness and, 106–107, 162 snowdrift game, 163 spatially structured, 162, 163 tit-for-tat strategies, 87–90 Coordinated solutions to social problems, 70–71, 190, 194, 200 Cornell University, 166, 174 Cosmology, 6 Creationism, 24 Crowd behavior, 169 Crowe, Russell, 2 Cruz, Penelope, 145 Cultural diversity and Code of Nature, 109, 178 and economic game theory, 117 and rationality, 115 and sociophysics, 177–181 and strategy, 114–119, 178–180 Cultural evolution, 7 cross-cultural comparison, 113–115 nature vs. nurture controversy, 121–124 research funding, 165 and strategy, 111–112, 116–117, 124, 220 ultimatum game, 114–115 D Darwin, Charles, 14, 24–26, 78, 86 Davis, Morton, 239 de Moivre, Abraham, 244 Decision theory, 198, 212, 249 Democracy, 173, 195 Descartes, René, 129 Descent of Man (Darwin), 24 Dictatorship, 172, 173 Digital cameras, 1 Disgust, 104 Dodds, Peter, 174 Dopamine, 97, 101 Dresher, Melvin, 240 Drug addiction, 102 Duffin, R. L., 51 Durocher, Leo, 86 E Eastwood, Clint, 83 Economic game theory. See also Econophysics; Neuroeconomics applications, general, 2, 3, 6, 11, 22, 27, 34–36, 68, 71–72 assumptions, 111, 117 bargaining problem, 55–56 behavioral, 22 cultural diversity and, 117 division of labor, 25, 108 evolutionary analogies, 24–26, 165 Gilligan’s Island model, 37, 41, 54, 58

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature Manhattan Island model, 58 Nash equilibrium, 32, 60 Nobel laureates, 52, 70–71 quantum principles, 189 physics and, 165, 167, 180–181 representative agent model and, 108 Robinson Crusoe (neoclassical) model, 37–39, 41, 54, 58 Smith’s system, 9, 12–14, 17–21, 25 social preferences and, 111–112 utility and strategy, 31, 37–43, 95, 104–105 von Neumann–Morgenstern approach, 28, 30, 34, 35–40, 42, 47, 49–50, 51, 52–54, 60, 75, 95, 185, 217, 237 Economic growth, trust and, 106 Econophysics, 165, 167, 180–181 Einstein, Albert, 2, 75, 192, 219 Emory University, 115 Emotions. See also specific emotions computational analysis of brain activity, 97–98 games and, 95, 96–97 negative, 104 and rationality, 95–96, 97, 115 Ender’s Game (Card), 217–218 Ensminger, Jean, 117–118 Environment behavioral response to, 121–124 evolutionary landscape, 83–85 Equilibrium. See also Nash equilibrium mass-action interpretation, 57, 221, 240 principle and examples, 56–57 Erdös, Paul, 148, 149 Eton College, 77 Euler, Leonhard, 148 Evolutionary economics, 24–26, 165 Evolutionary game theory altruism problem, 85–86, 87 applications, general, vii, 3, 6, 14, 72, 160–161 and Code of Nature, 24–26, 72, 77 combinatorial language, 85–86 cooperative behavior, 76–77, 79–83, 85–92, 107, 161–162 Darwinism and, 24–26, 72, 76, 77 duck experiment, 73–75 eavesdroppers, 81–83 hawk-dove game, 79–83 landscape, 83–85 matrix, 80 Nash equilibrium and, 74–75, 80, 83, 89, 124, 222, 241 natural selection, 78 and networks, 151, 157–158, 159–163, 222 Paley’s intelligent design, 24, 25–26, 236–237 Prisoner’s Dilemma, 87, 88, 107, 161–162 quantum mechanics and, 195 relevance of, 76–77 snowdrift game, 162–163 and social networks, 159–160, 162–163 strategies, 78, 79, 81–82, 86–90, 107, 124–125 utility (fitness), 78–79, 83–85, 88, 158, 161 Evolutionary psychology criticisms of, 119–122, 223, 243 game theory and, 113 nature vs. nurture controversy, 121–122 principles, 112–113

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature F Fads, 171, 173 Fairness, 63, 110, 111, 116, 119 Farner, Doyne, 180 Fermat, Pierre, 130, 197 Fight or flight response, 94–95 Fixed-point theorems, 58–59 Flitney, Adrian, 193 Flood, Merrill, 240 Foundation Trilogy (Asimov), v, vii, 1, 4–5, 9, 34, 113, 246 Fourier, John Baptiste Joseph, 132 Free-market economy, 17–18 Free will, 134–135, 138, 169 French Revolution, 129 Freud, Sigmund, 93–94, 97, 219 G Galam, Serge, 166–167, 171 Galileo, 36, 129 Game Physics, 215 Game theory. See also individual disciplines acceptance of, 52–54 applications, generally, vi–viii, 2–9, 13, 21, 27, 49, 52, 53, 67, 70, 71–72, 220, 221–222; see also individual disciplines and Code of Nature, 38, 49–50, 220 defined, vi and information theory, 200, 212 minimax theorem, 43–49, 58, 239 modeling human interactions, 68–69 and networks, 145, 159–163 origin, 2, 26, 27, 28, 30, 185 potential today, 66–72, 223–224 and prediction of outcomes, 66–67, 211–213 principles, 2–3, 138 probability theory and, 140–142, 198, 199–202, 208–214 and psychology, 215 random factors, 32, 34, 48 rational behavior, 21, 67, 69 relevance to real life, 67–68 statistical physics and, vi, 4–5, 6, 7, 39–43, 128, 199–202, 221 strategy, 30, 32–34, 42 utility, 22, 30–31, 37–38 Gases, kinetic theory of, 127–128, 135–140, 201 Gauss, Carl Friedrich, 131, 244 Gaussian distribution, 131, 139, 244, 249 Gell-Mann, Murray, 240 Genetics. See also Evolutionary psychology and behavioral predispositions, 102, 112, 122–123 and Code of Nature, 113 Gibbs, J. Willard, 142 Gintis, Herbert, 2–3, 4, 72, 90, 91 Glimcher, Paul, 99 Gnau (Papua New Guinea), 117 Google, 158 Gossip, 72, 75, 87, 89 Göttingen Mathematical Society, 33 Gould, Stephen Jay, 24–26 Graph theory, 143, 145, 148. See also Networks Graunt, John, 129 Gravity, law of, 60, 135 Greed, 90 Greene, Joshua, 224 Guare, John, 146 Gusev, Dmitri, v

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature H Hadza (Tanzania), 117 Haldane, J. B. S., 77, 85 Hall, Monty, 40 Harambee, 118 Harper, David, 73–74 Harsanyi, John, 2 Harvard University, 112 Hawk-dove game, 79–83, 228–229, 241, 246 Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 71 Henrich, Joe, 114–115 Herbie: Fully Loaded (film), 155 Herschel, John, 137 History of Civilization in England (Buckle), 137 Hobbes, Thomas, 20, 129 Hogg, Tad, 194 Holt, Charles, 63 Hopper, Dennis, 155, 157, 245 Houser, Daniel, 66 HP Labs, 194 Human nature. See also Code of Nature fragmented view of, 118–119 nature of, 112–113 universality doctrine, 120–121 Hume, David, 14, 31, 106, 219 Hurwicz, Leonid, 53 Hutcheson, Francis, 237 I Ignorance, 205–208, 211–214 Impartial spectator, 23 Incomplete information, 66 Indirect reciprocity, 86–88 Infinite series, summing, 29 Information revolution, 219 Information theory, 8, 200, 201, 202–208, 212 Institute for Advanced Study, 35, 55, 75–76 Intelligent design, 6, 24, 25–26 International relations, 70 Internet, 146, 149, 158, 160 Iqbal, Azhar, 195 Irrationality, 22, 66 quantification of, 212–214 Ising, Ernst, 170, 173 J Jaynes, Edwin, 201, 204, 206, 207 Jealousy, 120 Johns Hopkins University, 11 Johnson, Neil F., 182 Johnstone, Rufus, 82 K Kakutani, Shizuo, 58 Kenney, George, 45–46 Kevin Bacon game, 144–146, 149 Kinetic theory of gases, 127–128, 135–140, 168–169, 175, 210 Knockaround Guys (film), 155 Krueger, Alan, 18 Kuang, Le-Man, 192, 193 Kuhn, Harold, 60 Kurzban, Robert, 66 L La Rochefoucauld, 110 Lamalera (Indonesia), 117 Landscape, evolutionary, 83–85 Language, 85–87 Lanzhou University, 246

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature Laplace, Pierre Simon, 130–131, 132, 139, 204, 248 Law of the jungle, 19, 72, 75, 83 Le Her, 32 Lee, Chiu Fan, 182 Lee, Christopher, 155 Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von, 27 Let’s Make a Deal (TV), 40–41 Leviathan (Hobbes), 129 Liars, Lovers, and Heroes (Sejnowski and Quartz), 122 Life sciences, merger with physical sciences, 6, 8 Logic, 30, 68, 118 Lohan, Lindsay, 155 Louis XV, 16 M MacArthur Foundation, 115 Machiguenga (Peru), 114–115, 116, 220 Magnetic resonance imaging, 98–99, 105, 192, 242 Magnetism, 169–173 Maine, Henry, 19, 236 The Maltese Falcon (film), 110 Marx, Karl, 20 Mass action, law of, 57 Mass extinctions, 171 Matching pennies game, 61, 141 Maximum entropy principle, 201–202, 205–206, 213–214 Maxwell, James Clerk, 127–128, 135–140, 142, 168–169, 175, 219 Maynard Smith, John, 77–78, 85, 241 Mazlish, Bruce, 13–14 McFee, Bruce, 155 McGill University, 123 Meyer, David, 185–188, 189, 190 Mice, tail-test reaction, 122–124 Microsoft, 158, 185, 187, 189 Milgram, Stanley, 146 Minimax theorem, 33, 34, 43–49, 58, 237, 239 Minority game, 175, 176–177 Mogil, Jeffrey, 123, 124 Montague, Read, 4, 94–95, 97–99, 100–101, 104, 105, 106 Moore, Demi, 144 Moral philosophy, 15 Morgenstern, Oskar, 26, 27, 34–36, 37–40, 42, 49–50, 51, 52–53, 55, 60, 95, 217, 220 Motions, laws of, 135 Multiple-person games, 53–54, 208 Myerson, Roger, 51, 52 N NASA Ames Research Center, 4, 199, 209 Nasar, Sylvia, vi, 2, 29, 54, 246 Nash, John Forbes, vi, 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 29, 50, 51–52, 54–56, 59–61, 66, 70, 140, 164, 220, 221 Nash equilibrium, 111, 142 acceptance of, 59, 125 assumptions and calculations, 125, 209, 225–229 bargaining problem, 55–56, 66 and Code of Nature, 52 and conflict strategy, 70, 104 dissertation, 59–61 economic game theory and, 32, 60, 220, 240 evolutionary game theory and, 74–75, 80, 83, 89, 124, 223, 241

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature fixed-point theorems and, 58–59 gas laws and, 140, 201 hawk-dove game, 228–229 Hobbes’s social preferences as, 129 limitations, 209 network, 163, 166 payoff matrix, 62 principle, 57–58 Prisoner’s Dilemma, 61–64 probability theory and, 199, 200, 208–209, 212 public goods game, 61, 64–66 quantum mechanics and, 187 in social interactions, 175 zero-sum game, 225–227 National Science Foundation, 115, 165 Natural law, 19, 128. See also Code of Nature Natural selection, 24–25, 78. See also Evolutionary game theory Nature vs. nurture controversy, 121–124 Networks. See also Social networks actors, 144–145, 153, 154–155–156, 157, 245 airline, 155 applications, 147–148, 149, 151, 160–161, 166 biochemical, 151, 160–161 clusters/clustering coefficient, 149, 152, 153–154, 157 and Code of Nature, 145, 163 commonalities, 151 competitive interactions, 160, 161, 166 degree coefficient, 154 degrees of separation, 145–146, 149, 154, 155–156 evolution, 151, 157–158, 159–163 game theory and, 145, 159–163, 222, 235 growth, 151, 157, 163, 167–168 hubs, 154, 155, 157, 161 Internet, 146, 149, 158, 160 Kevin Bacon game, 144–146, 149 links, 148–149, 150, 152, 155, 156, 158–159 mathematical models, 153–154, 159 Nash equilibrium, 163 in nature, 151, 153, 158, 160–161 neural, 151, 153, 157 nodes, 148, 150, 151, 152, 154, 155–156 origins, 148, 149–151 path length, 153, 154 power grids, 157 and power laws, 156–157 preferential attachment, 157, 158, 160, 163 and quantum physics, 235 random connections, 148, 149, 152, 154, 155–156 regular lattice, 151–152, 154, 155 scale-free, 156–157, 159, 163, 246 self-organization, 157 small-world (intermediate) model, 149–153, 154, 156, 157, 158 statistical mechanics and, 5, 143, 145, 163, 166, 180 strategy, 161–162 strongly connected components, 159 ubiquitousness, 146–147, 153, 159 World Wide Web, 147, 149–150, 157, 158–159, 160

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature Neurobiology. See also Brain game theory applications, 3, 6, 8 Neuroeconomics, 174 animal studies, 99–100 brain chemistry and processes, 94–95, 99–102, 105 and Code of Nature, 92, 102, 106–109 hormone changes, 105–106 landmark research, 99, 106 principles, 3–4 risk takers (matchers) vs. conservatives (optimizers), 101–102 trust-related brain activity, 103–106 utility, 99–100 New York University, 99 Newton, Isaac, 2, 21, 26, 35, 69, 135 Newtonian determinism, 130 Newtonian physics, 12, 21, 128, 129, 130 Noncooperative games math for, 200 Nash’s theory, 51, 52, 59–61 and statistical physics, 201 Northern Illinois University, 120 Northwestern University, 11 Notre Dame University, 156 Nowak, Martin, 75–76, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90 O Opinion formation and transmission, 167–168, 169, 171–173, 174 Origin of Species (Darwin), 24, 26 Orma (Kenya), 116, 117–118, 220 Osama bin Laden, vi Oxytocin, 105–106 P Pacheco, Jorge, 163 Pack behavior, 169, 171 Page, Scott, 178–179, 180 Paley, William, 24, 25–26 Paradoxes perfect future knowledge, 34–35 Pascal, Blaise, 130, 197–198, 248 Pelorat, Janov, 5 Penny flipping game, 61, 141, 182–183, 186–189, 208 Perfect future knowledge, 34–35 Perfect information, 33 Petty, William, 129 Pfeiffer, Thomas, 160, 161 Phase transitions, 169, 170, 171 Physics. See also Newtonian physics; Sociophysics; Statistical mechanics and economic game thoery, 165, 167, 180–181 game theory applications, 4, 7, 8, 36 Physiocrats, 15, 16 Pinker, Steven, 112–113 Platt, Michael, 99 Pocket calculators, 1 Poe, Edgar Allan, 61 Poisson, Siméon-Denis, 132 Poker, 30, 68, 75, 239 bluffing, 43, 48 Political economy, 12, 17, 20–21, 25 Political science, 3 Power laws, 156–157 Prediction of human behavior, 111 Preference. See Social preferences; Utility Preferential attachment, 157, 158, 160, 163 Price, George, 77–78, 241

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature Princeton University, 2, 18, 35, 51, 55, 100, 106, 224 Principia (Newton), 35, 69, 129, 219 Prisoner’s Dilemma, 61–64, 71, 87, 88, 107, 161–162, 163, 189, 192, 193, 240 Probability distributions adjustment, 214–215 in game theory, 140–142, 209–210 of gas molecules, 140–142 measuring uncertainty in, 205–207 of mixed strategies, 140, 200, 208, 210–211, 215, 238 quantum mechanics and, 196 Probability theory, 130–131, 132. See also Statistics applications, 208 early pioneers, 204, 248 and game theory, 140–142, 198, 199–202, 208–214 ignorance and, 205–208, 211 and information theory, 202–208 inventor, 197–198 and Nash equilibrium, 199, 200, 208–209 objective view, 203–204 Pascal’s wager, 198, 211, 248 and psychohistory, 199, 214–215, 221 role in science, 197, 198–199, 202–203 and statistical physics, 142, 199, 220–221, 247 subjective view, 202–204 voting games, 214 Profit maximization. See Utility Psychohistory, vi. See also Sociophysics Code of Nature model, vii, 8–9, 109, 113–114, 164, 181, 199, 219 hybrid research disciplines, 164–165 and manipulation of society, 174 probability theory and, 199, 214–215, 215, 221 and statistical mechanics, 4–5, 42, 125, 126–128, 178, 219 Psychology, 3, 69, 215. See also Evolutionary psychology Public goods game, 61, 64–66, 90–92, 117–118, 194 Punishment, 90–92, 103, 107, 116, 242 Purdue University, 214 Q Quantum communications, 189–192 Quantum game theory, vii, 7, 181 applications, 185, 189–190, 193–194 and Code of Nature, 195 communication systems, 189–192, 247 and evolutionary game theory, 195 Nash equilibrium, 187 origins, 185–189 penny flipping game, 182–183, 186–189, 247 Prisoner’s Dilemma, 189, 192, 193 public goods game, 194 quantum computing and, 183, 185–186, 187 strategies, 185, 187, 188–189, 193, 195 voting application, 185, 190, 194–196 Quantum information physics, 187–188

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature Quantum mechanics entanglement, 192–194, 195, 247 mathematical formulation, 29 multiple realities, 183, 184–185, 196 observation effects (decoherence), 184–185, 193 probability distributions, 196 pure and mixed states, 186 qubits, 187, 190–192 von Neumann and, 29, 185–186 Quartz, Steven, 122 Queen of Blood (film), 155 Quesnay, François, 15–16, 17, 125 Quetelet, Adolphe, 131, 132–134, 136–137, 138, 139, 199, 219 R Rand Corporation, 2, 29, 246 Random factors, 32, 34, 48 network connections, 148, 149, 152, 154, 155–156 number generator, 48 Rapoport, Anatol, 88, 245 Rathbone, Basil, 155 Rationality, 12 animals, 241 culture and, 115 defined, 67 emotions and, 95–96, 97, 115 game theory and, 21, 67, 69, 209 limited or bounded, 201, 209 natural selection as, 78 Reciprocal altruism, 86 Rényi, Alfréd, 148, 149 Repeated-games approach, 71, 163 Reputation, 87, 89 Reward, brain processes, 99–100, 107 Ricardo, David, 31 Risk taking, 101–102 Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 122 Roth, Alvin, 63 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 70 Rubenstein, Ariel, 68 Russell, Bertrand, 197 Rustichini, Aldo, 106 S Samuelson, Paul, 52–53 Sanfey, Alan, 103–104 Santa Fe Institute, 165, 176, 180, 200 Santos, Francisco, 163 Savage, Leonard, 211–212, 249 Schelling, Thomas, 70–71 Schuster, Stefan, 160, 161 Schweber, Silvan, 24 “Science of man,” 14 Sejnowski, Terrence, 122 Seldon, Hari, v–vi, 1, 4–5, 30, 34, 42, 113–114, 125, 137, 163, 174, 219 Self-interest/selfishness, 12, 21–23, 25, 31, 63, 69, 76, 104, 106–107, 110, 111–112, 116, 161, 162, 178 Self-organization, 157 Selten, Reinhard, 2 Set theory, 30, 33 Shannon, Claude, 204–205 Shor, Peter, 191 Shubik, Martin, 180–181 Sigmund, Karl, 87, 88 Simon, Herbert, 53

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature Skinner, B. F., 98 Small-world model, 149–153, 154, 156, 157, 158 Smith, Adam, 9, 12–26, 31, 35, 78, 106–107, 128, 219 Smith, Eric, 180–181 Smith, Roger, 11, 20–21 Snowdrift game, 162–163 “So long sucker” game, 61 Social cognitive neuroscience, 165 Social interactions. See also Social networks behavioral game theory and, 96–97, 108, 142, 174–175 magnetism analogy, 169–173 minority game, 175, 176–177 modeling, 68–69 molecular collision analogy, 153, 166, 168, 173, 201, 210 Nash equilibrium, 175 opinion formation and transmission, 167–168, 169, 171–173, 174 pack/crowd behavior, 170, 171 Social networks acceptance of research on, 167 clustering property, 154, 157 contagion model, 173–175 degrees of separation, 145–146 evolutionary game theory and, 159–160, 162–163 growth of, 167–168, 224 links between nodes, 148–149 mathematical modeling, 159 Nash equilibrium and, 166 power laws and, 157 small-world property, 151 and statistical mechanics, 166 terrorist, 167 Social physics, 244. See also Sociophysics Social preferences, 111–112, 129 Social sciences, 3 Buckle’s philosophy, 137–138 crime rates, 133–134 and game theory, 30, 38, 50, 53, 70, 119, 180 Hobbes theory, 129 long-term cooperative behavior, 71 metaphysical vs. scientific approach, 137–138 physics and, 132–135, 142–143 and statistics, 5, 129–132, 133–134, 138–139 Social validation model, 171–173 Sociobiology, 120, 223. See also Evolutionary psychology Socionomics, 165 Sociophysics. See also Psychohistory computer simulations, 180 cultural diversity and, 177–181 and game theory, 175–177 magnetism analogy, 169–173 Nash equilibrium and, 60, 200 networks and, 145, 163, 166 and physics, 60 probability theory and, 132–135 Quetelet’s average man, 133, 139 resistance to, 166–169 statistical mechanics, 142–143, 165, 166, 168–169, 174, 175, 199, 200, 210 temperature of society/players, 39–43, 165, 169, 173, 213, 214, 249 Specialization, 25, 78, 108 Spite, 63, 111 Stability. See Nash equilibrium Stag hunt game, 61 Stalemate, 172 Stanford University, 61 Star Trek: The Next Generation (TV), 182–183, 188

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature Statistical mechanics (physics) applications, 128, 132–143, 166, 219, 221 and Asimov’s psychohistory, 4–5, 42, 125, 126–128, 178, 219 canonical ensemble, 207–208 and Code of Nature, 128, 163 game theory and, vi, 4–5, 6, 7, 39–43, 128, 199–202 and kinetic theory of gases, 127–128, 135–140, 168–169, 175, 200, 210, 221 and maximum entropy principle, 201–202, 205–206, 213–214 mean-field theory, 175 network math and, 5, 143, 145, 163, 166, 180 noncooperative games and, 201 of phase transitions, 169, 170, 171 predictive powers, 127, 211–212 and probability theory, 142, 199, 220–221, 247 and social interactions, 142–143, 165–166, 174, 175, 199 Statistics. See also Probability theory Bayesian, 203 free will and, 134–135, 138 Gaussian distribution, 131, 139 interpreting, 134 measurement error, 130–131, 133, 139, 203 probability distributions, 140–142 and probability theory, 130–131, 132 Quetelet’s average man, 133 social, 128–132 uncertainties, 131 Stauffer, Dietrich, 164, 173 Steiger, Rod, 154, 245 Stewart, Dugald, 20, 24 Stock market crashes, 171 Strategies. See also Cooperation; Noncooperative games advantageous arrangement, 32–33, 49 altruism, 3, 77, 85–86, 87–88, 90, 92, 107, 111, 117, 161, 162 betrayal, 61–64 coalitions, 54, 58, 66 communication of, 193–194 conflict, 70, 83 cost of computing, 212–213 cultural diversity and, 114–119, 178–180 cultural evolution and, 111–112, 116–117, 124 defection, 64–66, 87, 88, 89, 90, 107, 193 defined, 42 eavesdropping, 81–83 in economic theory, 37, 42–43, 104–105 evolutionary, 78, 79, 81–82, 86–90, 107, 124–125 free-riding, 64–66, 90, 194 generous tit-for-tat, 89 mathematical principles, 32–33 minimax approach, 32, 43–49, 239 military example, 45–46 mixed, 42–44, 46–49, 54, 58, 64, 65–66, 80, 81, 91, 108, 118, 124, 140, 199, 220, 238, 239 network, 161–162 non-zero-sum games, 44 payoff matrix, 44–46, 49, 62, 80 population proportion and, 80 probability distributions, 140, 200, 208, 210–211, 215, 238 pure, 42–44, 220

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature quantum game theory, 185, 187, 188–189, 193, 195 random selection of, 48, 49, 141-142 reciprocation, 64, 65–65, 86–87, 90–92, 117 rules for behavior, 42–43, 179–180 self-interest/selfishness, 12, 21–23, 25, 31, 63, 69, 76, 104, 106–107, 110, 111–112, 116, 161, 162, 180, 194 social norms and expectations and, 194 social preferences and, 111–112 spectating, 81–83 strong reciprocity, 90 terrorist, 72 tit-for-tat, 87–90 zero-sum games, 33, 43–44, 54 Strategy of Conflict (Schelling), 70 Strogatz, Steven, 149–151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 174 Sutherland, Donald, 155 Sympathy, 23, 107 Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna, 169, 171–173 T Tel-Aviv University, 166 Tennis, 141–142 Terrorist networks, 167 Theory of everything, 7–8, 222 Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (von Neumann and Morgenstern), 26, 35–36, 51, 52–53, 68, 217 Theory of heat, 39–43, 136 Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 22–23, 24, 106–107 Thermodynamics, laws of, 60, 136, 210. See also Theory of heat Torguud Mongols, 116 Townsend, Charles, 15 Trust, 103–106, 107, 111 Tucker, Albert W., 55, 61–62, 240 U Ultimatum game, 61, 92, 103–106, 110, 112, 114–117, 243 Universality doctrine, 120–121 University College London, 77 University of Berlin, 29, 30 University of Budapest, 29 University of California, Berkeley, 214 University of California, Los Angeles, 114, 118 University of California, San Diego, 185–186 University of Chicago, 11, 52, 78 University of Cologne, 173 University of Ghent, 132 University of Glasgow, 15 University of Hull, 195 University of Maryland, 70 University of Massachusetts, 37 University of Michigan, 88, 178 University of Minnesota, 106 University of Oxford, 15, 75 University of Vienna, 34, 76 University of Virginia, 145 University of Wroclaw, 169 University of Zurich, 29 Utilitarianism doctrine, 30–31 Utility brain processes, 99, 100–101, 109 defined, 22, 23, 27, 30 dopamine as reward, 97, 101

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A Beautiful Math: John Nash, Game Theory, and the Modern Quest for a Code of Nature in economics, 31, 37–43, 95 emotions and, 96–97 evolutionary fitness, 78–79, 83–85, 88, 158, 161 mathematical quantification, 31–32, 39–43, 211–213, 237, 238 in neuroeconomics, 99–100 ranking (valuation), 40–41, 56 temperature analogy, 39–43 utilitarianism doctrine, 30–31 Utility theory, 237 V Violence, spectating and, 81–83 von Neumann, John, 26, 28–30, 33, 34, 35–40, 42, 43, 47, 48, 49–50, 51, 52–54, 55, 58, 59, 60, 75, 95, 185–186, 217, 221, 237–238, 239, 242 Voting behavior, 167–168, 174, 214 quantum game theory application, 185, 190, 194–196 W Wald, Abraham, 249 Waldegrave, James, 32 Warfare, 83 Watts, Duncan, 144, 149, 152, 153, 157, 174 Wealth, 31 Wealth of Nations (Smith), 9, 12–14, 16, 17–22, 24, 106–107 Weber, Robert, 59 Weibull, Jörgen, 111–112 Wilson, Kenneth, 166 Winner-takes-all game, 78 Wolfram, Stephen, 235, 236–237 Wolpert, David, 4, 6, 7–8, 199–201, 209–214, 215, 249 World War II, 45–46 World Wide Web, 7, 147, 149–150, 157, 158–159, 160 Wu, Zhi-Xi, 246 Y Yale University, 180 Z Zak, Paul, 105–106, 109 Zermelo, Ernst, 32–33 Zero-sum games equilibrium point, 58, 225–227 two-person, 33, 43–50, 53, 54, 58, 60, 186 Zhang, Yi-Cheng, 176 Zhou, Lan, 192, 193