Index

A

Absolute mass, 167

Absolute motion, 33

Absolute space, 33

Absolute time, 33

Absorption spectra, 9, 163164

Acceleration, 32, 39

centripetal, 168

mass as elongated waves and, 7374

measuring differences in, 6062

rotation of universe and, 170

of universal expansion, 23, 24, 114116, 142, 143, 154, 162, 170, 192

Accretion, 49

ADD model, 186188

Adelberger, Eric, 61, 63, 144, 187

Aether, 33, 35

Age of universe, 1, 3, 5, 25, 228229

and communication with aliens, 1920

and Olbers’ paradox, 1215

Large Numbers Hypothesis, 151, 152

Albrecht, Andreas, 107, 161, 162

Alcock, Charles, 126

Aliens. See Extraterrestrial life

Allen, Woody, 1

Almagest (Ptolemy), 2

Alpher, Ralph, 87, 92

American Physical Society, 112, 118, 143

Amherst College, 165

Andromeda, 11, 75, 154

Anisotropies, 100-101, 111113, 117

Anthropic principle, 101102, 193

Anti-de Sitter space, 144, 188

Antigravity, 76, 80, 116, 142.

See also Dark energy

Antimatter, 56

APOLLO (Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation) mission, 6263, 157158, 160

Apollo Moon landings, 62

Arecibo radio observatory, 122

Arkani-Hamed, Nima, 186

Arsenic and Old Lace, 52

Asimov, Isaac, 132

Astrology, 2729

Astronomical measurements

Martian orbit, 3

technology and, 24

Astronomical objects, classification of, 165166, 169

Atomic clocks, 6970

Atomic spectra, 910, 44

Australian National Laboratory, 114

Axions, 23, 128, 131135

B

Babylonians, 85

Ballard, J. G., 207, 208



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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Index A Absolute mass, 167 Absolute motion, 33 Absolute space, 33 Absolute time, 33 Absorption spectra, 9, 163–164 Acceleration, 32, 39 centripetal, 168 mass as elongated waves and, 73–74 measuring differences in, 60–62 rotation of universe and, 170 of universal expansion, 23, 24, 114–116, 142, 143, 154, 162, 170, 192 Accretion, 49 ADD model, 186–188 Adelberger, Eric, 61, 63, 144, 187 Aether, 33, 35 Age of universe, 1, 3, 5, 25, 228–229 and communication with aliens, 19–20 and Olbers’ paradox, 12–15 Large Numbers Hypothesis, 151, 152 Albrecht, Andreas, 107, 161, 162 Alcock, Charles, 126 Aliens. See Extraterrestrial life Allen, Woody, 1 Almagest (Ptolemy), 2 Alpher, Ralph, 87, 92 American Physical Society, 112, 118, 143 Amherst College, 165 Andromeda, 11, 75, 154 Anisotropies, 100-101, 111–113, 117 Anthropic principle, 101–102, 193 Anti-de Sitter space, 144, 188 Antigravity, 76, 80, 116, 142. See also Dark energy Antimatter, 56 APOLLO (Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation) mission, 62–63, 157–158, 160 Apollo Moon landings, 62 Arecibo radio observatory, 122 Arkani-Hamed, Nima, 186 Arsenic and Old Lace, 52 Asimov, Isaac, 132 Astrology, 27–29 Astronomical measurements Martian orbit, 3 technology and, 2–4 Astronomical objects, classification of, 165–166, 169 Atomic clocks, 69–70 Atomic spectra, 9–10, 44 Australian National Laboratory, 114 Axions, 23, 128, 131–135 B Babylonians, 85 Ballard, J. G., 207, 208

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Barbour, Julian, 207, 208 Barrow, John, 95, 163 Baryons, 127–128 Bell Labs, 90–91 Bernabei, Rita, 136–137 Bernstein, Aaron, 103 Besso, Michele, 209 Beta decay, 128–129, 130 Bethe, Hans, 86, 87 Big Bang theory, 1, 2, 5, 15, 85 αβγ model, 87–88, 90, 92 confirmation of, 111–113 cosmic microwave background and, 13, 91–93, 111–113 Eddington model, 84–86 flatness problem, 95–98, 103, 104, 106, 110, 161, 193 graceful exit problem, 105, 107 homogeneity problem, 99, 104, 188 horizon problem, 98–102, 104, 106, 161, 187–188, 193 Hubble expansion and, 3, 13, 103, 105 inflationary models, 89, 102–113, 117, 118, 119, 154, 161, 162, 175–176, 188, 190, 193 isotropy problem, 99, 100–102, 104, 111 Lemaitre model, 83–84 magnetic monopole problem, 103, 104 mixmaster (anisotropic) universe, 100–101, 131 and nucleosynthesis, 87, 90, 93–94 objections to, 83, 88, 89, 112, 158 shape of, 202 singularity, 119, 171, 173–176, 192, 202 standard model, 1, 2, 3, 93–94, 103, 109, 158, 190, 191 temperature of fireball, 92, 100 timing of events, 93–95 Weyl curvature hypothesis and, 102 Big Crunch, 1, 81, 85, 145 Big Rip, 144–146, 230 Big Whimper, 1, 145–146 Binary pulsars, 69 Binary star systems, 44, 49 Black holes, 166, 192, 193 accretion process, 49 astronaut’s fate in, 50–51, 52 candidates, 49 Chandrasekhar limiting mass, 156, 169 colliding, 69, 71, 72 detection, 49, 169 escape from, 51, 53 event horizon, 48, 50, 52, 58, 204 formation process, 49–50, 146 general relativity and, 50, 65 geodetic effects, 65 gestation of baby universes in, 226 Hawking radiation, 52–53 Kerr-Newman solution, 51 Kruskal diagrams, 53 massive, 65 in Milky Way, 51–52 and negative mass, 57, 58 primordial, 51 properties, 47–49, 51, 125, 169, 203 Schwarzschild metric, 48, 53, 203–204 singularities, 48, 50, 51, 52, 171, 174, 204 sizes, 51–52 time dilation, 50 wormholes, 53–54 X-ray emissions, 49 Blackett, Patrick, 67 Blake, William, 7 Bloated massive neutrinos, 137 Blueshift, 10 Bohr, Niels, 180, 213, 217, 228 Bolyai, János, 78 Bondi, Hermann, 9, 56, 88 Bonnor, William B., 177 Borges, Jorge Luis, 221 Bosonic strings, 138, 183 Bosons, 108, 137–139, 140–141, 181, 219 Boulby salt mine, 135 Brahe, Tycho, 3

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Branes, 184–185 Brans, Carl, 153, 206 Brill, Dieter, 197 Brookhaven National Laboratory, 134 Brosche, Peter, 170 Brown dwarfs, 23, 125 Bubbles, 166, 176 Bulk, 185, 186, 187, 188 Burbidge, E. Margaret, 89 Burbidge, Geoffrey, 89 C Calabi, Eugenio, 182 Calabi-Yau shapes, 182–183, 185 Caltech, 67, 69, 71, 85 Calvino, Italo, 173 Campbell, John Edward, 201 Campbell’s theorem, 201 Canuto, Vittorio, 154 Cardiff University, 121 Carey, S. Warren, 159 Carnegie Institute, 123 Carroll, Lewis, 121, 195 Case Western Reserve University, 143 Cavorite, 142 Centre for Mathematical Sciences, 190 Cepheid variable stars, 127 CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), 43, 47, 134, 139, 231 Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, 114 Chandrasekhar limiting mass, 156 Chaotic cosmology programme, 95 Chaotic inflation, 110, 176, 223 Chibisov, Gennady, 103 Chinese, dynastic, 85 Chodos, Alan, 143 Chronology Protection Conjecture, 211 City College of New York, 139, 154 Clayton, Donald, 90 Clifford, William, 196–197 Closed strings, 183, 186 Closed timelike curves, 171 Clusters, 3, 22, 98–99, 144, 154, 155, 156, 166, 167 Collins, C. B. (Barry), 101 Columbia University, 103 Coma Berenices, 22 Coma Cluster, 22 Communications alternate realities, 223–224 intergalactic, 18, 19–20, 25, 145–146, 212 superluminal, 188 time characterized through, 210 Compactification, 180, 181 Complementarity, 217 Complex numbers, 73–74 Conservation of angular momentum, 79, 157, 169–170 Conservation of energy, 79, 88, 153, 154 Conservation of mass, 89 Constants. See also Cosmological constant; Gravitational constant; Speed of light; Variable constants; other specific constants Contact, 53–54 Continental drift, 159, 160 Continuous creation process, 88–89 Cooperstock, Fred, 173, 197 Copernicus, Nicholas, 2, 75, 95 Cornell University, 103 Cosmic Background Explorer, 3, 111, 115, 205 Cosmic egg, 83 Cosmic microwave background (CMB), 13, 91–93, 99, 100, 111, 118, 200 Cosmological constant, 26, 36, 76, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85–86, 115, 116, 117, 143, 144, 148, 161, 162, 175, 230 Cosmological models. See also Big Bang theory; other individual models anthropic principle, 101–102, 193 concordance model, 118–119, 229–230

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos continuous creation process, 88–89 creation field, 89 de Sitter universe, 82 Einstein static universe, 76–77, 81, 84 Friedmann, 1, 81, 82, 85, 94, 115, 119 quasi-steady state, 112 religious traditions and, 83, 95, 101, 230–231 scale-free principle, 169–171 steady state, 88–89, 90, 93, 153–154, 176 Tolman’s oscillatory universe, 85, 86, 191, 193, 231 Cosmological principle, 88 Counselman, Charles, 156 CP (charge-parity) invariance, 132 CP symmetry, 133 Creation event, 175, 206–207. See also Big Bang theory Creation field, 89 Crime and Punishment, 150 Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS), 137 D D-branes, 185–186 DAMA, 136–137 Dark energy abundance in universe, 25, 119 antigravity property, 21, 142 and Big Rip, 144–146 cosmological constant and, 26, 84, 143, 144, 146 cyclic model and, 192 and gravitational constant, 154 and laws of nature, 24–25, 146 quintessence, 25, 117, 142–144 Randall-Sundrum model, 144 and universal expansion, 192 as vacuum energy, 142 Dark matter candidates, 125–128, 141 cold, 128; see also Axions; MACHOs; WIMPs composition, 23, 24, 128–135 content of universe, 25, 114, 119, 127 discovery, 21–22, 123–125 gravitational lensing and, 21–22, 23, 125, 187 hot, 128; see also Neutrinos invisible galaxy, 119, 121–123 MACHOs, 125–128 manyfold universe model and, 187 non-baryonic, 127, 128 properties, 122, 124, 127–128 search and classification methods, 125–128 Dark of night, 7–8, 25. See also Olbers’ paradox Davies, Jonathan, 121 Davis, Raymond, 129 de Sitter, Willem, 65, 189 de Sitter space, 144 Deutsch, David, 207, 208 DeWitt, Bryce, 60, 223, 227 Dicke, Robert H. (Bob), 61, 70, 91–92, 96, 103, 153, 160, 206 Digital cameras, 3–4 Dimensions, higher. See also Fifth dimension; M-theory; Space-time; Supergravity theory; Superstring theories; Unified field theory detecting, 57–58 external, 219–220 inertial vs. gravitational mass, 58 inferring, 78–79 internal, 219–220 mapping, 199–202 warped, 188 Dimopoulos, Savas, 186 Dirac, Paul Adrien Maurice, 150–152, 153, 154, 160, 184, 213 Dirac equation, 151 Dirichlet p-branes, 185–186 Doppler effect, 9–10, 44, 111, 114

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Drake, Frank, 16 Drake’s equation, 16–17 Dresden, Max, 101–102 Drever, Ronald, 69 Duff, Michael, 184 Dvali, Gia, 186 E Eclipses, 44, 158 Eddington, Arthur, 43–45, 66, 82–83, 84–85, 88, 179, 189, 207, 208, 213, 215–217, 220, 221–222, 228, 233 Ehrenfest, Paul, 76 Ehrmann, Max, 147 Einstein, Albert, 1, 2, 5, 25, 27, 34–36, 66, 70, 76–77, 80, 81, 82, 86, 147, 148, 153, 161, 173, 179, 189, 194, 196, 197, 207, 209, 213, 218, 233. See also General theory of relativity; Mass-energy equation; Special theory of relativity Einstein ring, 125–126 Einstein tensor, 41 Ekpyrotic universe, 190–191, 192, 197 Electric dipole moment, 132–133 Electromagnetic theory, 132 Electrons, 140 Dirac equation, 151 energy states, 9 rest mass, 206 spin state, 138 Electroweak theory, 45, 108, 132, 141, 229 Elements fireball theory, 90 supernova theory, 86–87, 89–90 Emission spectra, 9 Energy vibrations. See Superstring theories Entropy, 85, 155, 191, 192, 208, 209–210 Eötvös, Roland von, 60–61 Eöt-Wash group, 61–62, 144, 187 Equations of state, 109, 201, 202, 204 Equivalence principle, 39–40, 58 laser and space probe tests, 62–69 torsion balance tests, 59, 60–62 EROS (Expérience de Recherche d’Objets Sombres), 126, 127 Eternal inflation, 176 European Space Agency, 63, 232 Event horizon, 48, 50, 52, 58, 204 Events, 36–37 Everett, Hugh, 223 Everitt, C. W. Francis, 66–67, 68, 69 Exchange particles, 108 Exotic matter, 55–59, 137. See also MACHOs; Neutrinos; WIMPs Expanding-Earth hypothesis, 158–161 Extraterrestrial life age of civilizations and, 19 belief in abundance of, 16 belief in rarity of, 18 communications, 18, 19–20, 25, 145–146, 212 extragalactic cultures, 18–19 probability of contact, 15, 16-17 search for, 17, 19 space travel, 53–54 F Fairbank, Bill, 66–67 Fermi, Enrico, 15–16 Fermi paradox, 16, 18, 21, 25 Fermions, 137–139, 140, 181, 219 Feynman, Richard, 213 Fibonacci sequence, 148, 149 Field, defined, 40 Fifth dimension, 5, 57, 59–62, 78, 144, 176, 178–179, 185, 188, 191, 194, 197–202, 205–207, 211–212, 219 Fifth element, 117 Filaments, 166 Fine-structure constant (alpha), 5, 160, 162–164, 232

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Flat metric, 38 Flatness problem, 95–98, 102, 103, 104, 106, 110, 161, 193 Fountain clock, 70 Fowler, William, 89, 90 Fractals, 164, 165 Frayn, Michael, 227–228 Friedmann, Alexander, 1, 80–81, 82, 87, 94 Fusion process, 86–87, 155 G Gaia satellite, 232 Galaxies, 75–76 age of, 14 clusters and superclusters, 3, 22, 98–99, 144, 154, 166, 167 dark halos, 125, 137, 187 distribution, 98–99, 167 evolution of, 83–84, 89, 98, 112, 144 flat rotation curves, 124–125 Great Wall, 99, 166 invisible, 119, 121–123, 141 light from, 8 mapping, 4 redshift, 10–11 relative scale of, 166 rotation, 170 velocities, 114, 161–162 Galilei, Galileo, 2, 3, 31, 63 Gamow, George, 81, 87–88, 90, 92, 123, 170–171, 180, 189, 213 Gaudi, Antonio, 42 Gauss, Karl Friedrich, 78 Gell-Mann, Murray, 56, 151–152 Geller, Margaret, 166 General theory of relativity, 215, 218–219, 233 chaotic cosmology programme and, 95 and complex numbers, 73–74 confirmation of, 43–45, 80, 229 cosmological constant, 26, 36, 76, 80, 82, 116, 148, 230 dark energy and, 26 equivalence principle, 40–41 five-dimensional solutions, 5, 57, 58, 59–62, 176, 178–179, 198–199, 201, 206 and frame dragging, 64, 65 geodetic effect, 41, 42, 43, 48, 64, 65 gravitational constant, 1, 2, 5, 22, 39–41, 43, 46, 56, 58–59, 65, 139, 152–154, 196 and gravitational waves, 69–72 and Hubble expansion, 26, 81–82, 109 and inflation model, 109 and Mach’s principle, 72–74, 76–77 quantum mechanics and, 45–47, 66, 72–75, 218–219 rotating universe and, 170 scalar field, 153 and singularities, 48 solutions, 149, 153 and space-time, 39, 45–46, 54–55, 58, 64, 69–72, 78, 211 and tensors, 41–42 tests of, 43–45, 59–72 and wormholes, 54–55 Geodetic effect, 64, 65 Geons, 197, 203 Georgetown University, 123 Gervais, Jean-Loup, 139 Gibbons, Gary, 184, 189 Glashow, Sheldon, 140 Gödel, Kurt, 170, 211, 221 Godlowski, Wlodzimierz, 170 Gold, Thomas, 88 Golden Ratio, 149 Goldhaber, Gerson, 113 Goldman, Itzhak, 156 Gravitational constant astrophysical effects of variability, 154–158 Earth-Moon dynamics and, 157–158 expanding-Earth hypothesis, 158–161

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos general theory of relativity and, 1, 2, 5, 22, 39–41, 43, 46, 56, 58–59, 65, 139, 152–154, 159, 196 Hoyle-Narlikar theory, 160 Large Numbers Hypothesis and, 151, 152, 154, 157, 160 Newton’s laws, 152, 159 relative mass and, 167, 206 variability theories, 5, 148, 152–154, 187, 206 Gravitational force. See also Antigravity; Dark energy astrology and, 28–30 black holes, 49 brane-world models, 186–189, 226 Chandrasekhar limiting mass, 156 changes in laws of, 144, 152 in concentrated systems, 124 density of universe and, 83, 107 equivalence principle, 39–40, 58, 59–69 Hubble expansion and, 24 localization, 188–189 lunar, 28, 29, 30, 157–158 M-theory and, 186–189 mass and, 195–196 neutrinos, 128 Newton’s laws, 5, 22, 25, 29, 30, 43, 56, 58, 124, 148, 152, 159, 166 particle carrier of, 139; see also Gravitons and planetary orbits, 43, 65, 124, 157–158 and quantum mechanics, 45–47, 181–183 Riemann manifolds and, 41–42 and shadow matter, 141 strength of, 29 symmetry breaking, 108 and time dilation, 50–51 Gravitational lensing, 22–23, 125, 187, 204 Gravitational mass, 58–59, 60 Gravitational microlensing, 125–128 Gravitational redshift, 44, 60 Gravitational waves, 69–72, 73, 197 Gravitometer, 70 Gravitons, 183, 186, 187, 188, 231 Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite, 64, 65, 66, 67–68 Gravity Research Foundation, 158 Gravity wave detectors, 141, 221 Great Wall astronomical structure, 99, 166 Greeks, ancient, 85, 149 Green, Michael, 139 Gross, David, 183 Grossmann, Marcel, 40 Guth, Alan, 102, 103, 104–105, 108, 175 Gyroscopes, 66, 169 H Half-integer spin state, 138–139 Halpern, Paul, 227–228 Hänsch, Theodor, 163–164 Harrison, Edward, 13 Hart, Michael, 18 Hartle, James, 197 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 166 Harvard University, 140, 182 Harvey, Jeff, 183 Hawking, Stephen, 53, 101, 174, 175, 210, 211 Hawking radiation, 52–53 Heisenberg, Werner, 218–219, 228 Heisenberg uncertainty principle, 45, 56, 79, 105 Hercules constellation, 154 Herman, Robert, 87, 92 Heterotic string theories, 183 Hierarchy problem, 151, 186 Higgs boson, 108, 138, 141, 231 Higgsino, 141 Hilbert space, 218, 219, 221 Hindus, 85 Hoffman, Banesh, 218 Homestake gold mine, 130 Hooker telescope, 82 Horgan, John, 140

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Horizon problem, 98–102, 161, 187–188, 191, 193 Horn Antenna, 91 Hoyle, Fred, 83, 88, 89, 90, 93, 112, 153–154, 160, 189, 207, 208 Hoyle-Narlikar theory, 160 HR8703, 66 Hubble, Edwin, 3, 9, 10–11, 75, 76, 81, 82, 86, 92, 232 Hubble expansion acceleration, 23, 24, 114–116, 142, 143, 154, 162, 192 cause, 13 and cooling, 155 dark energy and, 115–117 deceleration, 116, 192–193 and dilution of light, 9–12, 15 discovery, 9, 81–82 eternal, 210 and extraterrestrial communications, 20, 210 general theory of relativity and, 26, 81–82 phase transitions and, 109 rate, 4, 5, 23–24, 83–84, 103, 109, 113–116 rotation of universe and, 170 and steady state theory, 88–89 Hubble radius, 224 Hubble Space Telescope, 3, 62 Huchra, John, 166 Hulse, Russell, 69 Hunter College, 175 Hypersphere, 77, 80 Hypersurfaces, 202 I Imaging, space-based technologies, 3–4 Imperial College London, 161 Indeterminate expressions, 46 Induced-matter theory, 185, 197–199, 201, 203, 205, 206 Inertia, 27, 39 equivalence principle and, 40, 60 lunar and planetary motion, 30–31, 43 Mach’s principle, 33–34, 72–74 Newton’s thought experiment, 31–33 principle, 30 universal reference frame, 33 Inertial mass, 58–59, 60 Infeld, Leopold, 218 Infinities, 46 Inflaton field, 109 Inflationary models, 89, 102–113, 117, 118, 119, 154, 161, 162, 175–176, 188, 193 Integer spin state, 138–139 Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 164 Invariant relationships, 148 Ionization, 135 Isotopic spin state, 219 J Jagellonian University, 170 James, Ioan, 150 Jodrell Bank Observatory, 121, 122 Johns Hopkins University, 143 Jordan, Pascual, 153, 160 Jordan-Brans-Dicke scalar-tensor theory, 153, 154 K Kalligas, Dimitri, 68–69 Kaloper, Nemanja, 187 Kaluza, Theodor, 57, 178–179, 180 Kaluza-Klein theories, 179–181, 197, 198–199, 201, 204–205, 219 Kaons, 132 Kepler, Johannes, 2, 3, 28–29, 117, 213 Kepler’s laws, 29 Kerr, Roy, 51 Kerr-Newman solution, 51 Khoury, Justin, 190

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Kirzhnits, David, 102 Klein, Oskar, 57, 87–88, 179–181, 219 Klein-Gordon equation, 180, 203 Koch curve, 165 Konopinski, Emil, 15 Korteweg-deVries equation, 203 Krauss, Lawrence, 143 Krotkov, R., 61 Kruskal diagrams, 53 L La, Daile, 154 Large Hadron Collider, 47, 231–232 Large Magellanic Cloud, 126, 127 Large Numbers Hypothesis, 151, 152, 154, 157, 160, 213 Laser interferometry, 70–71 Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, 111, 113 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 134 Lemaitre, Georges, 83–84, 86, 87, 233 Length contraction, 36 Lense, Joseph, 64 Lerner, Eric J., 112 Light. See also Photons; Speed of light Doppler effect, 10 wave properties, 35 Light-year, 13 Lightlike interval, 38 LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) project, 69, 70–72 Linde, Andrei, 102, 103–104, 107, 110, 118, 176, 227 Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector experiment, 131 Liu, Hongya, 73 Lobachevsky, Nikolai Ivanovich, 78 Local Supercluster, 154 Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction, 36 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 15, 131 Lunacy, 27–28 M M-theory ADD model, 186–188, 189 colliding branes, 190–194 Cyclic universe, 190, 191–194, 197, 231 D-branes, 185–186 Ekpyrotic universe, 190–191, 192, 197 and fifth dimension, 5, 57, 185, 191, 198 framework, 183–186 and hierarchy problem, 186 and horizon problem, 191, 193 manyfold universe model, 187–188, 189 Randall-Sundrum model, 144, 188–189 research centers and collaborations, 189–191 superstring dualities, 184–185, 219 tests of, 57 Mach, Ernst, 33–34 Mach’s principle, 33–34, 72–74, 76–77, 153 MACHO group, 126–128 MACHOs (Massive Astronomical Compact Halo Objects), 125–128, 131, 135 Magnetic dipole moment, 133 Magnetic monopole problem, 103 Magueijo, João, 161, 162, 163 Mandelbrot, Benoit, 164 Mandelbrot set, 165 Manifolds, 41, 42, 43, 64, 65, 144, 200–201, 202, 219 Manyfold universe model, 187–188 Marcy, Geoff, 17 Mars, orbital measurements, 3, 29 Martinec, Emil, 183 Mass. See also Matter converting to distance, 205 detection of changes, 207 gravitational theory and, 195–196 relative, 167 rest, 195, 198, 206

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Mass-energy equation, 147, 148 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 69, 70, 71, 83, 103, 134, 156 Mathematical democracy, 227 Matter. See also Mass geometrizing, 77–81, 196, 197; see also Dimensions; Fifth dimension induced-matter theory, 185, 197–199, 203, 205 origin of, 195–202, 205–207 space theory of, 196–197 Maxwell, James Clerk, 35 Maxwell’s equations, 178 McDonald, Art, 131 Membrane theory, 46, 184. See also M-theory Mercury (planet), 43, 44, 60, 65, 80 Metagalaxy, 165 Meteorites, 155, 159 Metric, 37–38 Metric tensor, 41, 42 MICROSCOPE project, 63 Milky Way, 11, 18, 22, 51–52, 76, 124, 126, 137, 187 Milne, E. A., 215 Minchin, Robert, 121 Minkowski, Hermann, 36–37, 178 Minkowski space-time, 36–38, 41, 177, 194 Mirror matter, 141 Misner, Charles, 100–101 Mixed systems, 209 Mohapatra, Rabindra N., 141 Moon gravitational influence, 28, 29, 30, 34, 157–158 inertial motion, 30 Morris, Michael, 54 Motion, Newton’s second law, 58 Mount Wilson Observatory, 3, 82 Muons, 130–131 Murphy, Tom, 63 N Narlikar, Jayant, 89, 153–154, 160 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 62, 67–68, 91, 111, 158 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 134 Naval Observatory, 123 Nebulas, 75–76 Negative energy, 151 Negative mass, 4, 55–59, 142 Negative pressure, 175, 176, 177 Neptune (planet), 79, 124 Neutralinos, 140–141 Neutrinos, 24, 58, 79–80, 128–131, 133, 134, 135, 182, 183 Neutron stars, 23, 47, 49, 57, 69, 125, 146, 166, 192 Neutrons, 132, 133, 137, 152 Neveu, André, 182 New York University, 160 Newman, Ted, 51 Newton, Isaac, 3, 16, 31–33, 35, 117, 212–213, 233 Newtonian physics, 218–219 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 225 Niven, Larry, 223–224 Non-Euclidean geometry, 77–78 Nordström, Gunnar, 178 Nuclear force, 86, 87 Nuclear recoil, 135, 141 Nucleosynthesis, 86–87, 226 O Observable universe, 21, 119, 165 Olbers, Heinrich Wilhelm, 8 Olbers’ paradox, ix–x, 6, 18, 21, 25 age of universe and, 12–15 Hubble expansion and, 8–12, 15 thought experiment, 14–15 Oldershaw, Robert, 165 Omega parameter, 81, 94–98, 106, 114, 115–116

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Oort, Jan, 22, 122–123 Open strings, 183, 185–186, 187 Oroville Dam, 136 Ovrut, Burt, 190 Oxford University, 150, 208 P Paczynski, Bohdan, 125, 126 Parallel universes, 223, 224–227, 228, 230 Parity reversal, 132 Particle horizon, 20 Pattern recognition, 149, 213 Pauli, Wolfgang, 79–80 Peccei, Roberto, 133 Peccei-Quinn theory, 133 Pedagogical University, 170 Peebles, P. J. E. (Jim), 92 Pegasus constellation, 66 Pennypacker, Carl, 113 Penrose, Roger, 102, 174, 210 Penzias, Arno, 91–92, 93, 111 Perfect cosmological principle, 88 Perimeter Institute, 226 Perlmutter, Daniel, 113 Perlmutter, Felice, 113 Perlmutter, Saul, 113–114, 143, 162 Phase transitions, 104, 105, 108, 109, 176, 181 Photinos, 140, 141 Photons, 99, 138, 140, 141 axion conversion to, 134 string theory, 187 wavelike characteristics, 9 WIMP detection and, 135 Pi (film), 149 Pioneer 10 space probe, 135 Planck satellite, 232 Planetary orbits, 3, 29, 42–43, 65, 213 Planetary systems, abundance of, 17 Plasma cosmology, 112 Plate tectonics, 159 Poe, Edgar Allen, 12–13 Point particles, 46, 182 Polchinski, Joseph, 184 Ponce de Leon, Jaime, 201–202 Positrons, 56, 151 Potsdam Astrophysical Observatory, 48 Price, Richard, 11 Primakoff effect, 134 Primordial atom, 83, 87 Princeton University, 61, 75, 92, 107, 125, 170, 189–190, 224 Proceedings of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, 179 Project Echo, 91 Protons, 140, 152, 195, 211, 219 PSR 0655+64, 156 Ptolemy, Claudius, 2 Pulsars, 156, 169 Pythagorean theorem, 37, 210 Q Quantum mechanics, 45–47, 66, 151, 180, 216–219 chromodynamics, 45, 152, 229 electrodynamics, 163 field theory, 45, 86, 103, 105, 106–107, 138, 143, 163, 175, 179, 209 fluctuations, 191, 192 many-world interpretation, 223, 227 randomness, 175 Quarks, 133, 140, 152, 206 Quasars, 125, 164 Quasicrystals, 107 Queen’s University, 131 Quinn, Helen, 133 Quintessence, 25, 117, 142–144 R Radiation, energy and density of, 11 Radiometers, 92, 111 Ramond, Pierre, 138–139 Randall, Lisa, 144, 188, 227 Randall-Sundrum model, 144, 188–189 Red dwarfs, 125

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Redshift, 10, 11, 44, 60 Reichenbaecher, Ernst, 27 Relative mass, 167 Relativity, 31. See also Einstein, Albert; General theory of relativity acceleration of reference frames, 32 contradictory views, 217 universal reference frame, 33 velocity of reference frames, 32 Religion, 2 Rest mass, 195, 198, 206 Ricci tensor, 41 Ricci-Curbastro, Gregorio, 41 Riemann, Bernhard, 41 Riemann manifolds, 41, 42, 43, 64, 65 Riemann tensor, 41, 102 Riemannian space-time, 42–43 Rohm, Ryan, 183 Roll, George, 61 Rosen, Nathan, 173 Rosenberg, Leslie, 134, 135 Rubin, Vera, 123–125 Russell, John Scott, 202–205 S S-duality, 185 Sagan, Carl, 17, 30, 53–54 Sakita, Bunji, 139 Salam, Abdus, 178 Sandvik, Håvard, 163 Scalar fields, 108, 153, 175, 176, 205 Scalar waves, 70 Scale-covariant theory, 154 Scale factor, 81, 177 Scale-free principle, 168, 169–171 Scherk, Joël, 139 Schmidt, Brian, 114, 143, 162 Scholem, Gershom, 147 Schrödinger wave equation, 180 Schucking, Engelbert, 150, 160 Schwarz, John, 139, 182 Schwarzschild, Karl, 48, 51 Schwarzschild metric, 48, 53 Schwarzschild model, 203–204 Schwarzschild radius, 51, 52 Sciama, Dennis, 72–73 Science, subjectivity in, 215–217, 221–222 Scintillation, 135 Seahra, Sanjeev, 73 Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), 17, 18 Selectrons, 140 Self-organization, 148 Self-similarity, 164–165, 166, 167 Shadow matter, 141 Shadow realm, 186 Shadow worlds, 142 Shakespeare, William, 27 Shapiro, Irwin, 156 Shiff, Leonard, 64 Signature, 37 Sikivie, Pierre, 134 Singularities Big Bang, 119, 171, 173–176, 192 black hole, 50, 51, 52, 174 CMB evidence, 174 defined, 48 and general relativistic solutions, 48, 173–174 naked, 204 Sirius A (Dog Star), 44 Sirius B, 44 Sky surveys, 4, 232 Slaughterhouse Five, 211 Sloan Digital Sky Surveys, 4 Small Magellanic Cloud, 126 Smolin, Lee, 226, 227 Smoot, George, 111–112 Sodium iodide, 135 Solar system Copernican model, 2 Ptolmeic model, 2, 3 Solitons, five-dimensional, 202–205 Solvay, Mark, 143 Soudan mine, 137 Space. See also Universe curvature of, 80–81 distribution of galaxies, 98–99

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos temperature and composition, 99 warps, 144, 187 Space-time. See also General theory of relativity boundary-free, 174–175 breach in, 48 curvature, 78, 80–81, 220 dents, 64, 65 flat regions, 43, 96 foam, 46–47 frame dragging, 64 interval, 37, 38, 41, 210, 211 Klein-Gordon equation, 180 metric, 73 Minkowski, 36–38, 41, 177, 194 ripples in, 69–72, 106–107, 220 rotation, 170–171, 211 in special theory of relativity, 178 warping, 22, 42, 43, 44, 65 Space travel, 53–54 Spacelike interval, 38, 211, 212 Sparticles, 140–141 Spatial maps, 4 Spatial vacuum, 56 Special theory of relativity, 35–36, 38–39, 40, 42, 43, 129, 161, 178, 180, 210 Speed of light, 5, 18, 20, 25, 35, 36, 37, 51, 129, 147, 148, 160, 161–162, 167, 206, 210 Spin centripetal force, 168 state, 138–139, 153, 219 Spinoza, Baruch, 48 Spontaneous compactification, 181 Squarks, 140 SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices), 64, 66 Srianand, Raghunathan, 164 St. Augustine of Hippo, 84 Stabell, Rolf, 14 Standard candles, 114 Standard model, 1, 2, 3, 93–94, 132 Stanford Linear Accelerator, 56 Stanford University, 64, 66, 67, 68, 103, 133, 137, 186, 187 Starlight age of, 12–15 behavior near the Sun, 60 Starobinsky, Alexei, 103, 175 Stars clusters, 154, 156, 166 evolution, 49–50 fusion process, 86–87, 155 lunar occultation, 158 nucleosynthesis, 86–87, 226 relativistic properties, 48 scale of, 166 State University of New York at Stony Brook, 101 Steady state theory, 88–89, 90, 93, 153–154, 176 Steinhardt, Paul, 75, 107–108, 109–110, 116–117, 154, 162, 190, 191, 192–193 STEP (Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle), 63–64, 65–66 Stress-energy tensor, 41–42 “String quartet,” 183 String theory, 5, 46, 138, 184, 186. See also Superstring theories Strominger, Andrew, 184 Strong CP problem, 133 Strong nuclear force, 45, 108, 128, 132–133, 138, 152, 180–181, 209 Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, 131 Sun, 49, 60, 129, 134, 155 Sundrum, Raman, 143, 144, 188, 189 Suntzeff, Nicholas, 114 Superclusters, 3, 98–99, 154, 155, 165, 167 Superconductivity, 64, 65–66 Supergravity theory, 5, 139, 181–182, 183, 184 Supernova Acceleration Probe, 117 Supernova Cosmology Project, 113–115 Supernovas, 23, 49, 69, 89–90, 170 clocking Type 1a, 113–115, 116, 117, 118, 162 mapping, 115

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Superstring theories, 139–140, 144, 181–183 Supersymmetry, 137–138, 139, 181, 219 Symmetry breaking, 102, 104–105, 108–109, 132–133, 225 Szydlowski, Marek, 170 T T-duality, 184–185 Tauons, 130–131 Taylor, Joseph, 69 Tegmark, Max, 95, 224–228 Telescopes, 3 Television, range of signals, 13–14, 19–20 Teller, Edward, 15 Temple University, 113 Tensor calculus, 41, 222 Tensors, 41–42 Teplitz, Vigdor, 141 Thirring, Hans, 64 Thorne, Kip, 54, 67, 69, 211 Time causation-violating loops, 171, 211 communications and, 210 converting to distance, 205 Copernican principle, 75, 116–117 dilation, 36, 50 five-dimensional theory and, 211–212 imaginary, 174–175 Nows, 208 reality of, 207–212 scale factor as function of, 177 travel, 171, 175, 211 Timelike interval, 38, 211, 212 Tipler, Frank, 18, 19 Tolman, Richard, 85, 191 Torsion balance tests, 60–62, 144, 187 Townsend, Paul, 184, 189 Truth, and mathematics, 221–222 Tryon, Edward, 175 Tulane University, 18 Turner, Michael, 23, 24, 118 Turok, Neil, 189, 190, 191, 193 Tye, Henry, 103 U UFOs, 15 Uluru (Ayers rock), 188 Unified field theory, 70, 86, 138, 173. See also M-theory compactification approach, 180, 185 domains, 218–219 five-dimensional theory and, 57, 176, 178–179, 180, 185, 194 Kaluza-Klein theories and, 179–181 quantum connections, 179–181, 218–219 strong and weak nuclear forces and, 209 supergravity theory and, 181–182, 183 superstring theories and, 182–183 Universe. See also Age of universe; Cosmological models; Space atomic coalescence, 99 biological analogy, 226 bubble, 225–226 causally-connected regions, 106, 110 closed, 81, 85, 94, 96, 115 cyclic, 190, 197 density, 81, 83, 89, 94–95, 98, 99, 106, 109, 112–113, 114, 115–116, 177 density distribution of structures, 166–168 dynamic, 1, 81, 82, 85, 94, 115 early snapshot of, 117–119, 174 Ekpyrotic, 190–191, 197 equation of state, 109, 201, 202 expansion, 1, 3. See also Big Bang theory; Hubble expansion fate of, 81, 94–95, 230 finite, 78 flat, 81, 94, 95–98, 101, 115–116, 118, 161, 199–200 fractal concept, 164, 165

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos geometry of, 77, 80–81, 118, 199–202 hesitation, 83–84 hierarchical approach, 165–166 isotropic vs. anisotropic, 100–102 multiverse, 223 observable, 21, 119, 122 open, 81, 94, 96 oscillatory, 85, 86, 191, 193, 230, 231 parallel, 223, 224–227, 228 phase transitions, 104, 105, 108, 109, 176, 181 pressure, 109 recession, 155 rotation, 170–171 scale of objects, 164–168 self-reproducing, 176, 223 static, 76–77, 81, 84, 233 vacuum fluctuation, 175 vacuum regions, 105 University of Bonn, 170 University of California at Berkeley, 113, 134 at Los Angeles, 133 at San Diego, 63 at Santa Barbara, 183 University of Cambridge, 83, 163, 183, 189–190 University of Chicago, 23 University of Florida, 134, 138 University of London, 139 University of Maryland, 100 University of Massachusetts, 13 University of Munich, 139 University of New South Wales, 163 University of Oslo, 14 University of Pennsylvania, 66–67, 107, 113, 129, 182, 190 University of Rome, 137 University of Southern California, 184 University of Stockholm, 180 University of Texas, 11, 183 University of Tokyo, 134 University of Washington at St. Louis, 55, 61 Upsilon particles, 58–59 V Vacuum energy, 142–144, 192, 198 fluctuation, 175 regions, 105 Valle, Knut, 14 Van Bibber, Karl, 134 Van Flandern, Thomas, 158 Variable constants, 5 astrophysical effects, 154–158 cosmological constant, 205 expanding-Earth hypothesis, 158–161 fine-structure constant (alpha), 5, 160, 162–164 G-variable theories, 5, 148, 152–154, 187, 206 general theory of relativity and, 152–154, 159 Hoyle-Narlikar theory, 160 Large Numbers Hypothesis and, 151, 152, 154, 157, 160 scale considerations, 164–168 speed of light, 160, 161–162 Varying Speed of Light (VSL) hypothesis, 161–162 Very Large Telescope, 164 Virgo cluster, 121 VIRGOH121 galaxy, 121, 125, 141 Virtual particles, 105, 163 Visser, Matt, 55, 56–57, 211 Vogt, Rochus, 69 Voids, 98, 166 Vonnegut, Kurt, 211 W W boson, 108, 140 Walls, 166 Wave functions, 73, 79, 209, 217 Weak nuclear force, 45, 108, 128, 180–181, 209 Webb, John K., 163 Wegener, Alfred, 159 Weinberg, Steven, 93–94

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Brave New Universe: Illuminating the Darkest Secrets of the Cosmos Weiss, Rainer (Rai), 69, 70, 71 Wells, H. G., 142 Wess, Julius, 139, 139 Wesson, Paul, 14, 73, 177 Weyl, Hermann, 102 Weyl curvature hypothesis, 102 Weyl tensor, 102 Wheeler, John, 46–47, 48–49, 51, 197, 203, 224 White dwarfs, 44, 49, 125, 146, 166, 192 White holes, 53 Whitehead, A., 215 Whitman, Walt, 121 Wilczek, Frank, 131–132 Wilkinson, David, 92 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), 3, 25, 117, 118, 119, 170, 174, 199–200, 205, 232 Wilson, Robert, 91–92, 93, 111 WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles), 128, 131, 135–137, 140–141 Winos, 140 Witten, Edward, 139, 181, 183, 184, 185 World War 1, 43 Wormholes, 53–55, 56–57, 211 X X-rays, 49, 156 Xenon, 135 Y Yale University, 158 Yau, Shing-Tung, 182 York, Herbert, 15 Z Z bosons, 108, 141, 182 Zacharias, Jerrold, 69–70 Zen koans, 217 Zero interval, 38 Zino, 141 Zumino, Bruno, 139 Zwicky, Fritz, 22, 122–123