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Index A hays, 71, 72, 79, 80, 92, 113, 120, 129, 130, metal complexes and chelates, 194, 195 132, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 156, sulfur-containing, 87 Absorption of nutrients. See also individual 169, 213-214, 226, 251, 256, 257, supplementation, 64 nutrients 269, 271, 272 Ammonia, 54, 149, 227, 228 diet and, 71, 72 meal, 118, 218 Amprolium, 118 energy cost of, 7 nutrient content, 59, 71, 76, 79, 80, 88, 92, Amylopectin, 38 environment and, 77 111, 118, 119-120, 121, 128, 129, Amylose, 38 starch intake and, 141 143, 144, 145, 146, 156, 164, 226, Anabaena, 137 Acacia spp., 268 240, 252, 256, 271 Andalusians, 243 Acclimation, 10, 84, 129-130, 271 oxalates, 251 Anglo-Arab horses, 19 Acetate, 6-7, 35, 37 pasture species for horses, 148, 212, 215 Animal Feeding Operations, 227 Acetazolamide, 240 pelleted or cubed, 88, 160, 169, 189-190, Anorexia/inappetance, 97, 118, 217, 219, 252 Acid-base balance, 48, 64, 65, 73, 81, 84, 86 259 Anthelmintics, 192 Acid insoluble ash method, 190, 204 silage, 154, 155 Antimicrobial agents, 192-193 Acremonium coenophialum, 158 voluntary dry matter intake, 145, 151, 155 Antioxidants Adenosine diphosphate, 76 and water intakes, 130, 131, 132 dietary application, 188-189, 258 Adenosine triphosphate, 6, 76, 118, 119, 141, Algae, 137-138, 227 in fats and oils, 162, 184, 258 225 Alkali disease, 96 health-enhancing additives, 186-189 Aeroallergens, 154, 156 Alkaline phosphatase, 97, 97 minerals, 187, 188, 189 Aflatoxins, 157, 185-186 Alkaloids, 190 preservatives in feeds, 184 Age. See also Foals; Mature horses; Old horses; Allergic respiratory disease, 154, 194 vitamins, 114, 115, 119, 123 Yearlings Almond hulls, 161 Aphanizomenon, 137 body condition score, 236 Alopecia, 92, 96, 97 Appaloosas, 15, 240 body weight, 14 α-Amylase, 224 Apple cider vinegar, 256, 257 chronologic, 236 α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, 118 Arabians, 14, 24, 48, 75, 97, 153, 162, 188, demographic, 236 α-Linoleic acid, 44, 49, 50, 193-194 189, 213, 240, 243, 247, 255 drinking behavior, 133 α-Lipoproteins, 46 Arabinogalatan, 193 energy requirements, 10, 12, 13, 14, 24 Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum), 156 Arachidonic acid, 50 growth rate, 16 Altai wildrye (Leysum angustus L.), 151, 212 Arginine, 54, 56, 62, 65, 164-166, 207 feeding behavior, 213, 214, 216, 218, 221 Alternaria, 257 Ascorbyl palmitate, 123, 187 heart rate, 24 Aluminum, 76, 79, 99 Ascorbyl stearate, 187 heat or cold stress, 10 American Association of Cereal Chemists, 203 Ash, feed composition tables, 304, 306 mineral requirements, 72, 75-76, 89, 97 American Horse Council, 1, 227 Aspartate aminotransferase, 95 physiologic, 236 American Institute of Nutrition, 99 Aspartic acid, 207 protein requirements, 60 American Oil Chemists Association, 203 Aspartic-pyruvic tranaminase, 95 total body water, 128 American Saddlebreds, 255 Aspergillus spp., 150, 157, 162, 196, 257 vitamin C, 124, 237 American Zoo and Aquarium Association, 274 Assateague ponies, 217 Alanine, 207 Amino acids. See also Protein and amino acids; Asses. See Donkeys; Wild asses Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) individual amino acids Association of American Feed Control dehydrated, 269 analytical methods, 207 Officials, 167, 183, 196 digestibility, 55, 72, 145, 152, 153, 189, 269 branched-chain, 64 Association of Official Analytical Chemists, dry matter intake by donkeys, 269 digestibilities, 56 203, 204, 205, 207, 208 and enterolithiasis, 256, 275-276 essential, 54 Athletic performance, 48-49 feeding behavior on, 213-214, 215, 216, 269 free, 54 Australia, water quality criteria, 134, 135, 136 fungal contaminants, 157, 257 metabolism, 120 Australian Stockhorses, 19, 130 and gastric ulcer syndrome, 253-254 327

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328 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES B Body condition Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), 184 aging signs, 236 Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 167, 184 B vitamins, 144. See also individual vitamins donkeys, 27, 272 Butyrate, 35, 37 Bacteria. See also individual species energy deficiency or excess and, 27-28 Byssochlamys nivea, 157 in forages, 154, 156-157 exercise and, 225 human health concerns, 227-228 and heat or cold stress, 10, 238 probiotics, 192-193, 189, 196 heat production and, 8 C in water, 138 and lactation, 20 Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), 144, 148, 212 Cabbage, 92 management, 225 Bark chewing, 147, 158, 220, 268 Cadmium, 88, 92 optimal, 27, 225 Barley (Hordeum vulgare), 6, 36, 58, 110, 118, Calcinosis, 71 and reproductive efficiency, 21-22, 27 119, 120, 121, 156, 159-160, 161, Calcitonin, 251 scoring systems, 21, 27 162, 164, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, Calcium and weight gain during pregnancy, 19 212, 214, 215, 269 absorption, 45, 71-72, 73, 74, 113, 167 Body fluid compartments, 128 Beans, 163, 164 age and, 75-76 Body temperature, 25, 11, 238-239 Beet pulp, 4, 35, 36, 79, 131, 160, 161, 196, associations/interactions, 65, 71, 72, 75, 77, Body weight 218, 241 78, 79, 80, 81, 92, 93, 113, 152, 156, age and, 14 Behavior. See also Drinking behavior; Feeding 160, 161, 186 body condition score, 19, 27-28 behavior; specific behaviors bioavailability, 186 and energy requirement, 7, 12, 19, 27-28 aggression, 216, 217 composition of inorganic sources, 308 exercise and, 15, 226 box/stall walking, 221 deficiency or excess, 70, 71, 72-73, 77, 113, fat supplementation and, 51 compulsive, 25, 158, 221 121, 156, 247, 250-252, 274 fiber intake and, 147 diet and, 49, 158 feed composition, 144, 161, 305, 307 gestation and, 19 fat supplementation and, 49 function, 70-71, 239, 240, 246, 247, 251 hard keeper horses, 51 fiber deficiency and, 158 in mare milk, 311-314 loss, 86, 156 head pressing, 96 recommendations, 73-76 management, 225-226, 250 herd social orders, 216, 223 requirement tables, 294, 296, 298, 300, 302 predicting, 14, 18 water restriction and, 134 sources, 71-72, 144, 152, 252 sweat losses estimated from, 84, 86, 133 weaving, 221 supplements, 71, 72, 92, 160, 167, 253 total body water, 128 Belgian horses, 14, 15, 28, 240-241 in water, 135 water requirements, 131, 132, 133 Bentonite, 185 Calcium ascorbyl monophosphate, 123, 187 yeast supplements, 197 Beriberi, 118 Calcium:phosphorus ratio, 72, 73, 77, 90, 161, Boerperd horses, 132 Bermudagrass, 55, 71, 76, 88, 143, 144, 148, 244, 246, 247, 235, 244, 248, 250- Bones. See Skeletal health 150, 151, 153, 166, 170, 171, 172, 252 Boron, 99, 144 189, 212, 240, 245, 247, 255, 268 Camargue horses, 213, 217 Boscia foetida, 268 β-Carotene, 110, 111, 112, 187, 189 Canada, water quality guidelines, 138 Botryodiploidin, 157 β-Endorphins, 222 Canarygrass, 157 Botulism, 154, 156 β-Glucans, 37 Canola meal, 58-59, 163, 164 Bracken fern, 118 β-Hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activity, 46, Canola oil, 162, 163 Bran, 110, 250 47 Cantharidin, 152, 156 Breed differences. See also individual breeds Bicarbonate, 135, 136 Carbohydrates. See also Fiber; individual types developmental orthopedic disease, 243-244, Bifidobacteria, 189, 193 of compounds 248 Bioavailability. See also individual nutrients analysis of feeds, 34-35, 205-206, 207-208 feeding behavior, 213, 216, 221 defined, 166 categories/classifications, 34-35, 207-208 growth rate, 13-15 form of nutrient and, 97, 98, 163, 166-167, digestion/digestibility, 34, 35, 37-39, 141, heart rate, 24 194-196 167-168, 189, 207-208 maintenance requirements, 21 interactions of nutrients and, 136 energy value, 3, 6, 34, 35, 141, 189 milk production, 19, 21 processing effects, 172, 259 environmental factors, 143 water requirements, 132 protein, 56-57, 172 excess intakes, 248-249 Breeding. See also Broodmares; Pregnancy; Biotin exercise and, 40-41, 47-48 Reproduction; Reproductive associations/interactions, 120 fat supplementation and, 46 efficiency deficiency, 120-121 feed composition, 34-35, 36-37, 141-143, energy requirements, 6, 16-17, 21-22, 147, function, 120, 250 149, 160, 161 216 requirements, 109, 121 and fetal development, 40 minerals, 70, 74 sources, 120 loading, 40 nutrient requirement tables, 294-303 supplements, 168, 250 maintenance requirement, 38 protein, 147 toxicity, 121 metabolism and storage, 39-41, 45, 46, 47- stallions, 16-17, 70, 116, 118, 119 Bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus), 148 48, 51, 87, 94, 98, 118, 122, 123, vitamins, 112, 116, 118, 119 Black walnut shavings, 249 143 Brewer's yeast, 98, 118, 165 Blind staggers, 96, 157, 161 nonfibrous, 34-35, 149, 160, 161, 205, 224, Bromegrass, 55, 151, 153, 156, 212, 253 Blister beetles (Epicauta spp.), 152, 156 241 Bromus carinatus, 142 Blue couch (Digitaria didactyla), 147, 212 nonstructural, 34, 35, 46, 141, 142, 143, Broodmares, 6, 9, 21-22, 74, 85, 90, 91, 213. Bluegrass, 146, 147 149, 154 See also Gestation; Pregnancy Bluestem (Andropogon spp.), 148, 151, 153, structural, 35, 37-38, 141 Buckwheat, 164 212 water-soluble, 35, 142-143, 149, 154, 205, Buffel grass (Cenchrus cilaris), 251 Body composition, 7, 8, 215, 225, 243 206, 248-249 Burros. See Donkeys

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INDEX 329 Carbonates, 136 Concentrates, 35, 38, 55, 132, 147 feed composition, 143, 150, 159, 160, 304, Carbonic anhydrase, 97 defined, 173 306 Carboxylase enzymes, 120 digestibility of nutrients, 56, 76 for gain, 59 Carboxypeptidase, 97 and growth, 13 neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen, 207 Carnitine, 123 and lactation, 19 requirement tables, 294, 296, 298, 300, 302 Carotenoids, 109, 110, 144 meal feeding, 223-224 Cryptosporidium, 137 Casein, 164 mixed, 160 Culicoides hypersensitivity, 50, 194 Cassava, 164 nutrient composition, 84, 304-305 Cyanogenic glycosides, 156 Catalases, 187 and polysaccharde torage myopathy, 241 Cyanophyceae (blue-green) algae, 137 Catarrhal conjunctivitis, 119 unusual oral behavior, 220, 221, 222 Cysteine, 62, 87, 164-166 Cellulose, 34, 37, 141, 142, 159, 189, 204 Concussion, 249 Cystine, 207 Ceruloplasmin, 187 Congenital contracted tendon, 242 Cystitis, 156 Cestrum diurnum, 71 Constipation, 86 Chaff, 214-215 Copper Chicory (Cichorium intybus), 212, 249 absorption, 88-89, 167, 195 D Chlorine associations/interactions, 87, 88, 89, 92, 93, Dallisgrass (Paspalum spp.), 148, 157, 251 absorption, 86 97, 136, 187 Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), 212 associations/interactions, 76 composition of inorganic sources, 309 Danish Warmbloods, 216 chlorides in water, 135, 136 deficiency or excess, 70, 88-89, 90, 97, 246- Deficiency or toxicity signs and symptoms composition of inorganic sources, 308-309 247, 235, 244, 248 anemia or leukopenia, 93, 121, 190 deficiency or excess, 70, 86 feed composition, 144, 305, 307 anorexia/inappetance, 97, 118 feed composition tables, 305, 307 function, 88, 187, 189, 246 blindness, 96 function, 86 hepatic decay, 247 calcification of soft tissue, 113 recommendations, 86-87 in mare milk, 90-91, 311-314 cardiac problems, 82, 95, 96, 118 requirement tables, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303 processing effects, 259 coagulopathy, 115 sources, 86 recommendations, 89-91 coat or hair abnormalities, 50, 65, 92, 96, supplements, 253 requirement tables, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303 97, 119 sweat losses, 238 sources, 88, 144, 194, 195, 220, 227 coma, 93 Chlortetracycline, 192 supplements, 90, 166, 167, 187, 189, 246- constipation, 86 Cholesterol, 44, 46, 48, 120 247 convulsions, 87, 122 Chondroitin sulfate, 87, 94, 190-192 Coprophagy, 220 corneal changes, 119 Chromic oxide, 170 Corn and corn byproducts. See also Maize dehydration, 86, 93 Chromium, 98-99 common feeds, 159 diarrhea, 93, 96 Citrate synthase, 46 contaminants, 156, 157, 161, 162 feeding/drinking behavior, 65, 85, 86 Citrinin, 157, 162 digestibility, 37, 38, 86, 224 fetal abnormalities, 50 Citrobacter, 138 distiller's dried grains, 159, 251 gastrointestinal problems, 96, 122, 158 Citrus pulp, 160-161, 164 gluten feed, 159, 251 goiter, 91, 92 Cladosporium, 257 gluten meal, 35, 55, 57, 159 growth impairment, 97, 110 Clamp grass, 154, 155, 156 ground, 37, 224 head pressing, 96 Claviceps, 157, 162 hominy, 159 hematological defects, 93, 110, 121, 122 Clays, 186 nutrient composition, 35, 36, 38, 55, 57, 86, hoof changes, 65, 70, 96, 121 Clean Water Act, 227 110, 115, 118, 119, 120, 121, 159, icterus, 93 Clostridium spp., 138, 154, 156, 228 165, 251 immune depression, 92, 111, 123 Clovers, 119, 144, 145, 146, 147 oil, 115, 162, 163, 194, 218, 226 lacrimation, 119 Clydesdale, 243 palatability, 162, 214 lactation changes, 65 Coastgrass, 153 processing effects, 169, 170, 171, 172 lethargy/listlessness, 87, 93, 96 Cobalt screenings, 162 liver damage, 93 absorption, 88 silage, 166, 214 locomotion disturbances, 89, 95, 97, 99, associations/interactions, 87-88, 92, 122 starch digestibility, 169, 170, 171, 172 114-115 composition of inorganic sources, 309 steam flaked, 36, 169-170, 171 muscle weakness/degeneration, 86, 95, 97, deficiency or excess, 70, 88 Cortisol, 49 114, 115, 118 feed composition, 144, 305, 307 Cottonseed meal, 55, 118, 162, 163 neurological changes, 79, 85, 86, 87, 114- function, 87-88 Cottonseed oil, 162, 163, 218 115 recommendations, 88 Crabgrass (Digitaria spp.), 148, 212 night blindness, 110 requirement tables, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303 Creatine kinase, 95, 117, 187 perspiration, 96 sources, 88, 144 Creatine phosphokinase, 189 photophobia, 119 Cocksfoot orchardgrass, 146, 269 Creep feed, 60, 76, 132, 212, 222, 235, 244, renal hypertrophy, 122 Coconut, 164 248 reproductive problems, 50, 65, 91-92, 111 Coconut oil, 162 Creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra), 147, 212 respiratory problems, 87, 95, 96, 111, 119 Cod liver oil, 111 Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), 151, skeletal abnormalities, 72, 77, 89, 90, 91, Cold temperatures and cold stress, 10, 11, 22, 153, 212 92, 94, 97, 99, 111, 113, 115, 242 128, 131-132, 133, 217, 238, 244 Cribbing, 25, 158, 220, 221-223, 252 skin disorders, 50, 85, 92, 111, 119, 120 Colic, 96, 134, 143, 153-154, 157, 158, 189, Crude protein, 4. See also Protein and amino suckling or swallowing difficulties, 95 220, 224, 239, 254-255, 275 acids tooth discoloration, 99 Colitis, 192 acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, 57, 207 unthriftiness, 82, 99 Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, 227 digestibility, 45, 55, 57, 60, 154, 155

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330 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES weight changes, 65, 86 feed composition, 146, 159, 160, 161, 304, and protein intake, 55, 62, 63, 155 wound healing problems, 123 306 race horses, 25, 48 Dehydration, 86, 93, 129, 130, 136, 271 growth-related intakes, 11, 238 voluntary, 144-145, 149, 150, 151, 213-214 Deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin), 157, 161, 186, 219 maintenance intakes, 7, 9, 10-11, 20, 238 and water balance, 128, 130, 132 Depression, 219 requirements, 3-4, 14, 16, 20, 25, 28, 238, Dust mites, 257, 258 Dermatophilosis, 92 294, 296, 298, 300, 302 Dutch Warmbloods, 243, 247 Developmental orthopedic disease Digestion/digestibility. See also individual bone growth disorders, 244-247 nutrients and feeds breed differences, 243-244, 248 associative effects of feeds, 4, 45, 225 E energy, protein, and fat intake and, 245-246, dry matter, 45, 55, 154, 155, 160, 237 Eastern gammagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides), 248 energy cost, 7 151, 212 exercise and training and, 247-248 exercise and, 4, 35, 60, 94 Eicosanoids, 44, 49, 50 growth rates and, 147, 243-244, 248 feed processing and, 38, 152, 163, 168-169, Eicosapentanoic acid, 49, 50 mineral intake and, 89, 246-247, 248 171-172, 206 Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), 153, nutrient intake effects, 89, 111, 244-247 individual variation, 4 212 pathogenesis, 242-243, 248 microbial fermentation, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, Endophyte-free perennial ryegrass (Lolium vitamin A and, 111 44, 45, 141, 189, 196 perenne), 147 Diacetoxyscirpenol, 157 particle size effects, 38, 167 Endotoxins, 50, 249, 257 Diarrhea, 82, 93, 96, 128-129, 137, 189, 192, probiotics and, 189, 196 Endurance horses, 27, 147, 252. See also Racing 193, 220, 228 processing effects, 38, 169-171, 172 Energy cost Dicoumarol, 157 silica and, 153 of eating, 5 Diet. See also Feeding management; Forage species differences, 3 of maintenance, 8 and absorption of nutrients, 71, 72 starch, 37, 38-39, 169-171, 172, 223-224, of storing and mobilizing energy, 7 accommodation/adaptation, 45, 46, 47-48, 225 of tissue accretion during pregnancy, 18 254 Disaccharides, 34, 35 of work/exercise, 23-25, 270-271 and behavior, 49 Diuretics, 240 Energy intakes donkeys, 272-274 Docosahexanoic acid, 49, 50 and bone growth disorders, 244, 245-246 and energy requirements, 7-8, 13 Docosapentanoic acid, 49 excess, 244, 245-246 environmental considerations, 11, 226-228 Donkeys (Equus asinus) and milk production, 19 and exercise, 40-41 blood variables, 272 and protein intake, 57 and feeding behavior, 214-215, 218, 219, body condition score, 27, 272 Energy requirements 220, 221, 222 calcium, 273 age and, 10, 12, 13, 14, 24 high-concentrate, 13, 19, 35, 38, 55, 132, digestibility of nutrients (apparent), 269-270 body condition score and, 27-28 147, 220, 221, 222, 223-224 dry matter intake, 213-214, 268-269, 273 body weight basis, 7, 12, 19, 27-28 high-energy, 38, 223, 245-246 endolithiasis, 256 breeding, 6, 16-17, 21-22, 147 high-fat, 11, 221, 238, 245, 254 energy cost of work, 270-271 deficiencies and excesses, 27-28 high-fiber, 38, 219, 221, 224, 254 energy requirements, 28, 270 diet composition and, 7-8, 13 high-forage, 20, 35, 37, 132, 223 feeding behavior, 213, 214, 268 donkeys, 28, 270 high-grain, 192-193 heat stress and dehydration, 271 environment and, 8, 10-11, 12, 15, 25, 27 high-hay, 239 hyperlipidemia, 28 estimating, 7-9 high-protein, 246 lactation, 273 exercising horses, 10, 17, 21, 23-27, 270-271 high-starch, 37, 39, 196, 197, 221, 223-224 milk composition, 272, 273 and feeding behavior, 211-212 low-energy, 220, 250 nutrient intakes from forage, 273 gender and, 13 low-fiber, 158, 221, 222, 224 phosphorus, 273 growth (maintenance + gain), 6, 11-16, 216, low-forage, 196, 197 practical diets, 272-274 225 low-protein, 220 protein, 271, 273 growth rate and, 13-16 low-starch, 254 vitamin A, 272 individual variation, 8 and milk production, 19-20 water, 129, 131, 132, 271-272 lactation, 19-21, 147, 216 mixed, 56, 225 Draft horses, 9, 15, 18-19, 21, 132, 145, 213, maintenance, 6, 7-11, 20, 21, 236 and nutrient excretion, 227-228 216, 240-241, 243. See also old horses, 8, 236-237 pelleted or processed feeds, 221 individual breeds oxygen utilization and, 22-23 and water balance, 128, 129, 131-132 Drinking behavior, 84, 133-134 pregnancy, 17-19, 28 Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD), 73, Dry matter intake reproduction, 16-22 79, 129 digestibility, 45, 55, 154, 155, 160, 237 Energy sources, 6-7 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, donkeys, 213-214, 268-269 Energy status, and reproductive efficiency, 21- 186 energy, 145, 155 22 Digestible energy ensilaged forages, 154, 155, 156 Energy systems. See also Digestible energy; and body condition score, 27 exercise and, 70, 154 Gross Energy; Metabolizable calculation of feed content, 3-6 fat intake and, 70, 239 energy; Net energy carbohydrates, 34 feed composition, 142, 151, 304, 306 calculations of feed composition by, 3-6 conversion to ME, 5 growth, 70, 145, 225 Unite Fourragere Cheval, 5-6 conversion to NE, 28 hay, 149, 150, 151, 156 units, 3 dry matter intake and, 145, 155 lactation, 70, 144, 145 Energy value efficiency of use, 13, 25 maintenance, 70, 154 carbohydrates, 3, 6, 34, 35, 141, 189 ensilaged forages, 155 pasture, 144-145 fats, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 44, 45-46, 51, 169 factors affecting, 4, 8, 10-11, 145, 238 pregnancy, 70

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INDEX 331 forages, 4, 13, 141, 142, 145, 189 Estimating requirements, computer model, 285- and polysaccharide storage myopathy, 241, mare milk, 311-314 292 242 Ensilaged forages Ether extract (crude fat), 45, 207, 169 potassium, 82, 83-84 big bale, 155 Ethoxyquin, 167, 184 protein, 58, 59-60, 62-64, 65, 150 clamp, 154, 155, 156 Ethylenediaminedihydroiodide, 91, 92 reining-type, 24 classification, 154 European grass, 157 riboflavin, 119 conservation process, 154 European Warmbloods, 240 run time to fatigue, 49, 122 digestibility, 154-156 Exercise/work sand track, 24 dry matter intake, 154, 155, 156 acclimation, 10, 84, 129-130 selenium, 188, 189 energy content, 155 acid-base response, 48, 64, 65 silicon, 99 high-DM-baled, 154 amino acid supplementation, 64 sodium and chloride, 82, 83, 84-86 maize, 154, 155 athletic performance, 49, 122 tendon injuries, 113 palatibility, 154 and body condition, 225 thiamin, 118 potential problems, 156, 157 and bone health, 73, 74-75, 81, 247-248 three-day event, 24-25, 41, 84 soaking in water, 237 calcium, 70, 72, 73, 74-76, 78, 81 training, 15, 24, 26, 41, 72, 75, 78, 81, 84, 85, vitamins, 114, 121 carbohydrate utilization, 40-41, 47-48 99, 113, 122, 129-130, 158, 252-253 voluntary dry matter intakes, 154, 155 categories, 25 treadmill, 23, 117, 122, 132, 188 Enterolithiasis chlorine, 70, 83, 87 vitamin A, 112-113, 189 clinical signs, 255 chromium, 98 vitamin C, 123, 124, 187, 188, 189 nutritional factors, 255-256 components of, 23 vitamin E, 116-117, 188, 189 nutritional management, 256-257 conditioning, 24, 63, 64, 116, 120, 124 water, 63, 64, 70, 84, 86, 87, 129, 130, 131, in wild equids in captivity, 275-276 copper, 88, 91, 189 132, 133 Environment cutting-type, 24, 27, 49 and weight, 15, 226 and absorption of nutrients, 77 and developmental orthopedic disease, 247- zinc, 97, 189 bedding, 257-258 248 Exertional rhabomyolysis syndromes, 49, 95, and body condition, 10, 27 and digestibility of nutrients and feeds, 4, 98-99, 116, 240 climatic factors, 10-11, 15, 81, 95, 143, 217, 35, 60, 94 Exmoor ponies, 213, 217 222, 237-239; see also Temperature, drinking behavior, 133 Exudative dermatitis, 50 ambient dry matter intake, 70, 154 Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, duration and intensity, 22, 24, 26, 49, 63, 227 64, 75, 76, 79, 81, 83, 84, 129, 133, F and diet, 11, 226-228 147, 247 Fat and fatty acids. See also Lipid metabolism and drinking behavior, 133 electrolyte losses in sweat, 70, 81, 82, 83- accommodation/adaptation period, 45, 46, and energy requirements, 8, 10-11, 12, 15, 85, 86, 87 47-48 25, 27 endurance-type, 27, 75, 82, 84, 85, 116, acid-base responses, 48 and exercise, 25, 81, 84, 85, 87, 129, 133 117, 123, 124, 188 adverse effects, 45-46 and feed intake, 217-218 energy costs, 23-25, 270-271 analysis of feeds, 207-208 and feeding behavior, 10, 216-217, 218, 221 energy requirements, 10, 17, 21, 23-27, 270- associative or additive effects on other and feeding management, 217, 237-239 271 nutrients, 4, 45, 46, 48, 50, 72, 81, and forage nutrient content, 142, 143 environment and, 25, 81, 84, 85, 87, 129, 115, 239 and growth rate, 15, 244 133, 247 athletic performance, 48-49 and maintenance requirements, 10-11, 238 equitation-type, 27 and behavior, 49 physical modifications, 238 fat supplementation and, 47-49, 81 benefits, 49-50, 240, 241, 242 pollution concerns, 227-228 and feeding behavior, 215-216, 221, 222 bioavailability, 45 and recurrent airway obstruction, 257-258 feeding management for, 40-41, 122 bone growth disorders, 245-246 stabling, 25, 93, 132, 134, 257-258 fiber intake and, 147, 158 carbohydrate metabolism, 45, 46-47, 48, 51 waste management considerations, 65, 76, folate, 122 cell content of forages, 144 77, 148, 150, 195, 220, 226-228 and gastric ulcer syndrome, 158, 253, 252- deficiencies and excesses, 50-51 and water requirements, 128, 129, 131-132, 253 digestibility and energy value, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 133, 134 and glycogen repletion, 41, 47, 48, 49, 64, 44, 45-46, 51, 169 Epiphysitis, 89, 90, 97 241 disease management with, 240, 241, 242 Equine Cushing's disease, 237 and heart rate, 23, 24-26 and dry matter intake, 70, 239 Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy, 114- incline vs. flat surface, 23 ether extract (crude fat), 45, 161, 207 115 iodine, 92 exercise, 47-49, 81 Equine hyperlipemia, 28 iron, 93, 94 feed additives, 193-194 Equine leucoencephalomalacia, 157, 161 and lipid metabolism, 41 feed composition, 159, 160, 161, 162-163, Equine motor neuron disease, 115 magnesium, 79, 81 304, 306-307 Equine polysaccharide storage myopathy, 240- manganese, 94 and fiber digestion, 4, 45, 46, 239 241 metabolic response to, 47-48 function and structure, 44, 50, 162, 184 Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, 122 niacin, 120 glycerol-based lipids, 44, 48 Equitation horses, 27, 147 nutrient requirement tables, 294-303 and glycogen storage and utilization, 46-47, Ergotamine, 157, 160, 162, 186 old horses, 236, 237 48, 49 Ergovaline, 158 oxidative stress, 116, 187, 188, 189 growth, 49 Escherichia coli, 50, 138, 193, 227 oxygen utilization, 22-23, 24, 25 health effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, 49- Essential fatty acids, 44, 49, 50-51, 193. See pasture feeding, 122, 147 50 also Fat and fatty acids phosphorus, 75, 78-79, 81

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332 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES lactation, 20, 49 stabilizers, 186 and protein digestibility, 163, 171-172, 206 in mare milk, 20, 49, 311-314 technical, 184 rolling, 170, 171, 174 metabolic response, 47-48 toxicity, 190, 192, 193 standards, 167 nutrient composition, 306-307 yeast culture or extract, 196-197 and starch digestibility, 38, 169-171, 172 oxidation, 162, 184, 187 Feed analysis steam flaking, 170, 174 palatability, 44, 162, 218 carbohydrate analysis in horse nutrition, 34- terminology, 173-174 physiologic effects, 46-50 35, 142, 205-206, 207-208 and total tract digestibility, 168-169 processing effects on, 169 fat and fatty acids, 207-208 vitamin stability, 167 and protein digestion, 48, 62, 239 fiber, 142, 203-205 Feeding behavior. See also Feed intakes reproductive performance, 49, 50 general considerations, 203 age and, 213, 214, 216, 218 requirements, 50-51 near infrared reflectance spectroscopy, 208 bark chewing, 147, 158, 220, 268 sources, 44-45, 162-163 nonfiber carbohydrates, 205 bolting feed, 223 supplements, 8, 11, 20, 44, 45, 46-49, 51, protein and amino acids, 207 breed differences, 213, 216, 221-222 81, 221, 224, 226, 238-239, 240, starch, 205 confinement and, 216-217, 218, 220, 221, 222 241, 245 water-soluble carbohydrates, 205, 206 coprophagy, 220 synthesis, 120 Feed composition cribbing, 25, 158, 220, 221-223, 252 and thermoregulation, 11, 238-239 carbohydrates, 34-35, 36-37, 141-143, 149, depraved appetite, 86 Febendazole, 192 160, 161 diet and, 214-215, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222 Feed. See also Concentrates; Forages; Fresh cereal straw, 152 diurnal patterns, 217 pasture; Grains and grain products; concentrates, 84, 304-305 donkeys, 213, 214, 268 Hay conserved forages, 148-158 energy balance and, 211-212 associative effects, 4, 45, 225 contaminants, 92, 156-158, 161-162, 219-220 environment and, 10, 216-217, 218, 221 contaminants, 92, 156-158, 161-162, 219- dry matter intake, 142, 151, 304, 306 exercise and, 215-216, 221, 222 220 energy, 3-6, 146, 159, 160, 161, 304, 306 external parasites and, 217-218 determining nutrient content, 280-281; see ensilaged forages, 114, 121, 154-156 fat supplementation and, 215-216, 221, 222 also Feed analysis fats and oils, 159, 160, 161, 162-163, 304, feed-related effects, 150, 151, 158, 172, effects on feeding behavior, 218-219, 220 306-307 185, 218-219 fats and oils in, 4, 7, 162-163, 218 forages, 69, 141-159, 304-307 fiber restriction and, 158, 221, 222, 224 label claims, 184, 185, 186, 191-192 fresh pastures, 144-148 foals, 82, 212, 216, 220, 222 mineral supplements, 163, 166-167 grains and grain byproducts, 159-162 gender difference, 213, 222 moisture content, 208 hays, 148-151, 152-154 geophagia, 220 palatability, 44, 154, 162, 185, 218-219 minerals, 69, 89, 144, 161, 305, 307 illness and, 65, 85, 86, 217, 221 and pasture management, 148 moisture, 130 latrine behavior, 219-220 protein supplements, 163, 164-166 nitrates, 136 mature horses on pasture, 212-216 selection of, 280 tables, 203, 304-307 preferred feeds, 213-213, 218-219 terminology, 173-174 Feed intakes. See also Dry matter intake; rate of intake, 152, 214 vitamin supplements, 167, 168 Feeding behavior refusal to eat, 82, 85, 150 Feed Additive Directive 70/524/EC, 95 animal factors affecting, 216-217 seasonal differences, 213, 217 Feed additives decreased, 86 sidedness or handedness, 218 AAFCO-approved, 183 environment and, 217-218, 238 taste aversion, 149, 150, 219-220 anticaking agents, 162, 185-186 fat supplementation and, 49 typical patterns, 212-216 antioxidants, 162, 167, 184, 186-189 forages, 144-145, 151, 154, 155 unusual oral behavior, 152, 158, 220-223 colors, 184 particle size effects, 38, 151-152, 223 water restriction and, 131 defined, 173, 183 transportation and, 133 wood chewing, 152, 158, 220-221, 222, 224 direct fed microbials (probiotics), 189 water demand, 130, 133, 134 Feeding management. See also Diet; Nutrition dust reducers, 162, 186, 218 Feed processing and manufacturing, 167-168 management emulsifying agents, 186 additives, 167, 186 body condition management, 225 enzymes, 189-190 associative interactions, 170 climate and, 217, 237-239 flavors, 185, 190, 218 benefits, 167, 172 cold weather and, 217, 238 GRAS status, 184, 185, 190 and bioavailability of nutrients, 172 disease-specific nutrition management, 239- health- and performance-promoting, 185, crimping, 172, 173 259 186-197 digestibility, 38, 152, 163, 168-169, 171- for exercise and performance, 40-41, 122 herbs and botanicals, 190 172, 206 fat and fatty acids, 40-41, 122 interactions, 190 and energy value, 4 foals, 77, 235-236, 244, 248, 275 joint supplements, 190-192 extruded ingredients, 237 forages, 223, 224-225 lubricants, 186 and fat digestibility, 169 frequency of feeding, 224, 254 medicinal compounds, 186, 192-193 and feeding behavior, 172 general considerations, 223-226 oligosaccharides, 193 gelatinization, 170, 173 in group-fed situations, 216-217, 223 omega-3 fatty acids, 193-194 grinding, 167, 170, 171, 173 hot weather and, 238-239 organic trace minerals, 194-196 inactivation of anti-nutrients and toxins, meal feeding concentrates, 223-224 pellet binders, 162, 185-186 163, 167, 172 old horses, 237 physical enhancers of feed, 183-186 methods and systems, 167, 173-174 pollution control considerations, 226-228 preservatives, 184 micronizing, 170, 171, 172 ration balancing, 223, 225, 280-284 processing, 167 pellets, wafer, or cubes, 88, 151-152, 159, refeeding starved horses, 226 regulation, 183-184, 186, 190, 192 160, 162, 167, 169, 173, 174, 185- regulations, 227, 228 sequestrants, 186 186, 221 size of meal, 254

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INDEX 333 transition to new environment/diet, 218, heat or cold stress, 10 vitamins, 110, 114, 119, 120, 144 223, 254-255 iron, 92, 93 and water balance, 128, 131, 141 waste management considerations, 65, 76, oligosaccharides, 193 Founder, 224, 248 226-228 orphans, 110, 112, 132, 235-236 Foxtail millet (Selaria italica), 251 weight vs volume of feed, 223 peripartum asphyxia syndrome, 252 Free fatty acids, 46, 47, 48, 120, 161, 207 weight management, 225-226, 250 phosphorus, 235 Fresh pastures wild equids in captivity, 274-275 probiotics, 189 carbohydrates, 36, 142, 145, 205, 249-250 Ferritin, 187 protein requirements, 60, 61-62, 65, 90, 235 cell wall content, 142 Ferrous fumarate, 93 selenium, 96, 196 DE, 146 Fertilizers and manure, 143, 145, 147, 156, 195, sepsis, 252 digestibility, 145-146, 224-225 227, 228 sucklings, 20, 61, 116, 132, 133, 212, 235- dry matter intake, 144-145 Fescue, 55, 143, 146, 147, 151, 153, 158, 212 236, 244 exercise and, 122, 147 Fetal development, 17-18, 40, 50, 60-61, 73-74, vitamin A, 110, 112 feed analysis, 142 80. See also Pregnancy vitamin E, 114, 115-116 feeding behavior of mature horses, 144, Fiber water, 132, 133, 236 147, 158, 212-216 acid detergent fiber, 4, 45, 142, 159, 160, weaning, 49, 222, 235, 236 feeding value, 112, 144, 145, 146-147 161, 190, 204, 208, 304, 306 weight gain, 20, 197, 243, 244 fiber, 145, 147 analytical methods, 203-205, 208 wood chewing, 220 and laminitis, 205, 249-250 associative effects of fat, 4, 45, 46, 239 zinc, 97 management practices, 143-144, 145, 147- cell wall phenolics (lignin), 204 Folate 148, 220, 223 crude fiber, 205 deficiency, 121-122 and milk yields, 20 deficiency, 158 dietary sources, 121 and mineral deficiency or excess, 79-80 defined, 203 function, 121 protein, 145, 146 digestibility and energy value, 4, 37-38, 45, requirements, 109, 122 species for horses, 147-148, 212-213 154, 155, 189-190, 224, 239 toxicity, 122 stockpiling, 148 and exercise, 147, 158 Folic acid, 121, 168 toxic weeds and fungi, 148, 154, 219, 250 feed composition, 141, 145, 150, 159, 160, Follicle stimulating hormone, 22 and vitamin status, 112, 121, 122 161, 304, 306 Food and Drug Administration, 95, 161, 183, voluntary dry matter intakes, 144-145 and feeding behavior, 158, 221, 222, 224 186, 190, 192, 196 waste management, 148 and mineral absorption, 72 Center for Veterinary Medicine, 162 water content, 130, 132, 146 neutral detergent fiber, 34, 35, 37-38, 45, Forages Fructans, 34, 35, 37, 38, 141, 142, 143, 203, 142, 151, 159, 160, 161, 190, 204, analysis, 203, 205, 207 205, 249, 250 224, 304, 306 anti-quality factors, 156-158, 172 Fructooligosaccharides, 193, 204 rations, 225 bacteria, 154, 156-157 Fumonisins, 157, 161-162 restriction, 158, 221, 222, 224 carbohydrates, 37, 141, 142-143 Fungi, 150, 157, 161-162, 257, 259 supplement, 46, 147, 190 cell contents, 142-144 Furosemide, 84, 85 total dietary fiber, 204 chemical composition, 141-144 Fusaric acid, 219 and water balance, 128, 131 conserved, 148-157; see Ensilaged forages; Fusarium spp., 157, 161 Finnhorses, 244 Hay; Straw Fish oils, 163 dietary-fiber–cell wall carbohydrates, 141- Fishmeal, 55, 56, 57, 163 142, 204 G Flavin adenine dinucleotide, 118 digestion/digestibility, 13, 35, 37, 45, 55, Gait, 23, 24, 97, 114, 156 Flavin mononucleotide, 118 58, 141, 142, 143, 145-146, 152, Galactan, 205 Flaxseed, 50, 164, 194 153, 154-156, 204, 208 Gamma-glutamyltransferase, 95 Fluorine, 99, 310 diurnal variations, 143 Garlic supplements, 190, 218-219 Fluorosis, 99 dry matter, 142, 148 Gastric ulcer syndrome Foals. See also Growth endophyte contamination, 158, 215, 216 antacid therapy, 222 amino acid digestibilities, 56 energy value, 4, 13, 141, 142, 145, 189 calcium and, 73 birth weights, 17, 60, 193, 243 environmental influences, 142, 143 clinical signs, 252 bone health, 72 feeding management, 223, 224-225 in cribbing foals, 222, 252 calcium, 72, 73, 74, 235 fiber, 141-142 epidemiology and risk factors, 252-253 congenital defects, 122 harvesting consideration, 114 exercise and, 158, 253 copper, 88-89, 90 inherent plant anti-nutrients, 71, 76, 77, 79, nutritional factors (putative), 73, 84, 158, coprophagy, 220 118, 156 253-254 creep feed, 60, 76, 132, 212, 222, 235, 244, insect contamination, 152, 156 risk factors, 252 248 lipids, 144 sodium and, 84 crooked-legged, 242 microbial contamination, 156-157 stall confinement and, 253 developmental orthopedic disease, 242-248 minerals, 81, 82, 83, 92, 93, 94, 95, 99, 141, temperament and, 253 drinking behavior, 133 144, 240 Gastrointestinal health, water balance and, 129 energy requirements, 10, 12, 90 nutrient composition, 304-307 Geldings, 9, 16, 27, 28, 73, 133, 167, 188, 189, fat supplementation, 49 pastures, see Fresh pastures 214 feeding behavior, 82, 212, 216, 220, 222 processing, 148 Gender differences feeding management, 77, 235-236, 275 protein, 55, 58, 60, 141, 143-144, 165-166 energy requirements, 13 feral, 212 requirements, 158-159 feeding behavior, 213, 222 fostering, 235-236 seasonal variations, 143 growth rate, 14 gastric ulcer syndrome, 252 toxins, 152

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334 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES Geophagia, 220 Growth high-moisture, 149, 150, 156 Geriatric horses, 98, 236, 248 age and, 14 leaf shatter, 149 Gestation. See also Fetal; Pregnancy calcium, 73, 75, 156 Maillard products, 149 length, 18, 19, 61 chlorine, 86-87 minerals, 71, 72, 80, 149, 151, 152, 154 tissue accretion rates, 17-18 copper, 89-90 moldy, 149, 150 weight gain, 19, 61 critical period, 242 nutrient and dry matter losses, 149-151 Giardia, 137 daily DE for, 13, 16 palatability, 214 Glucocorticoid, 249 developmental orthopedic disease and, 242 particle size effects, 151-152 Glucomannans, 193 dry matter intake, 70, 145, 225 poisons/toxins in, 152, 154, 157 Glucosamine, 190-192 energy requirements, 6, 11-16, 216, 225, 238 preferences of horses, 149, 215 Glucose environment and, 238 problems with, 149, 152-154, 157, 158 metabolism, 5, 6, 7, 37, 38, 39-41, 47-48, fat supplementation and, 49 protein and amino acids, 56, 59, 149, 153 51, 98, 120, 241 fetal, 60-61 quality, 149-151 transporters, 41, 84 iron, 93 rejection by horses, 149, 150 vitamin C synthesis from, 123 magnesium, 79, 80, 81 soaking or steaming, 154, 259 Glutamic acid, 207 manganese, 94 storage, 150 Glutathione peroxidase, 91, 94, 95, 96, 114, mineral supplements, 167, 196 sun-cured, 113 115, 187, 196 nutrient requirement tables, 294-303 vitamin content, 110, 112, 113, 119, 120, Glycemic index, 39, 171 pasture feeding and, 147 121, 149 Glycemic response, 46, 171, 224 phosphorus, 76, 77-78, 79, 156 voluntary dry matter intakes, 144-145, 149, Glycine, 56, 207 potassium, 82, 83 150, 151 Glycogen storage and utilization, 7, 39-40, 41, protein, 58-61, 64, 150, 163 wafers, pellets, or cubes, 151-152, 160, 161 46-47, 48, 49, 64, 240-241 sodium, 85 and water requirements, 128, 129, 130, 131, Glycosaminoglycans, 190-192 thiamin, 118 132, 134 Goiter, 91, 92 vitamin A, 110, 111-112 Haylage, 154, 155, 157 Goitrogens, 92 vitamin D, 113-114 Heart rate, 23, 24-26 Gonadotrophin releasing hormone, 22 vitamin E, 109, 115-116 Heat production (energy loss), 5, 7, 8, 11, 48, 84 Gossypol, 163 zinc, 97, 98 Heat stress and high temperatures. See also Grains and grain byproducts. See also Growth hormone (GH), 22 Dehydration individual grains Growth rate age and, 10 analytical methods, 204, 208 age and, 16 donkeys, 271 brewer's/distillers, 55, 58, 59, 159, 160, 163, antibiotics and, 192 and energy requirements, 10, 11 164, 218 body weight and, 14-15 feeding management, 238-239 byproduct feeds, 159, 160-161 breed differences, 13-15 and water balance, 132, 133 carbohydrates, 35, 36, 38, 169, 170, 241 and developmental orthopedic disease, 147, Heinz body anemia, 190, 219 and colic, 255 243-244 Hemicellulose, 34, 37, 141, 142, 190 common feeds, 159-160 dietary stress and, 244 Hemoglobin, 123 digestion/digestibility, 45, 55, 159, 160, and energy requirements, 13-16 Heparin, 87 161, 168, 170, 192-193, 224, 225 environment and, 15, 244 Hepatotoxins, 137, 154, 156 energy content, 4, 38, 160, 161 fetal, 18 Hexokinase, 46 fat and fatty acids, 45, 161 hormonal factors, 244 Highland ponies, 272 fiber, 161 mineral source and, 195 Hindgut acidosis, 158 grading criteria, 159 predictions, 13-16 Hinnies, 268 meal size, 254 seasonal differences, 244 Histidine, 54, 62, 65, 164-166, 207 minerals, 81-82, 86, 92, 95, 99, 159, 160, Hominy feed, 159 161, 240, 250-251 Hoof health, 65, 70, 96, 121, 195, 242, 248, 250 mold-inhibiting agents, 184 H Hordenine, 160 mycotoxins in, 160, 161-162 Hormone sensitive lipase, 28 Hanoverians, 14, 90, 243 palatability, 159, 160 Hyaluronan, 191 Harness racing horses, 7 processing effects, 159, 169, 170, 214, 250- Hyaluronic acid, 99 Hay. See also Straw 251 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate allergic respiratory disease, 154 protein, 160 (HSCAS), 185-186 baling/baled, 149-150, 157 rancidification, 161 Hydroxyl ions, 136 carbohydrates, 35, 36, 38, 149 starch digestibility, 169-171, 224 Hypercalcemia, 71 curing, 113, 148-149, 152 straws, 129 Hypercalcitonism, 72 defined, 174 vitamins, 110, 114, 116, 118, 119, 121 Hyperglycemia, 237, 245 digestibility, 38, 56, 72, 149, 150, 152, 153, and water requirements, 128, 129, 130, 131, Hyperinsulinemia, 237, 245 196 132, 134, 160 Hyperkalemia, 82 dipping in water, 134 Grasses, 142, 143, 144, 145, 148, 149, 150, Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis dry matter intake, 149, 150, 151, 156 151, 152, 155, 165, 172, 212, 240, etiology and genetic basis, 239 drying, 149 241. See also Forages; Fresh pasture; nutritional management, 239-240 energy source, 6, 7, 35, 153 individual species and potassium balance, 82 feeding behavior on, 221, 222 Greasy feces (steatorrhea), 46 Hyperlipidemia, 28 fiber, 150, 153 Green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) Hyperostosis, 111 grasses, 119, 215 extract, 192 Hyperphosphatemia, 251-252 heating/combustion, 150 Gross energy, 3, 5, 20, 34, 236 Hypertonic electrolyte solution, 253

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INDEX 335 Hypertriglyceridemia, 28 Keratan sulfate, 191 Leukopenia, 121 Hypocalcemia, 72, 80, 251 Keratin, 96 Lignin, 141, 142, 150, 152, 204, 205, 207 Hypochloremia, 86 Kiangs, 274, 276 Lignin sulfonate, 185 Hypoglycemia, 41 Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum), 147, Lincomycin, 192 Hypohydration, 133 156, 212, 251 Linoleic acid, 44, 49, 50-51, 162, 193-194 Hypokalemia, 82 Klebsiella, 138 Linseed meal, 55, 58, 59, 163, 164 Hypomagnesemia, 79, 80 Kulans, 276 Linseed oil, 162, 163, 194 Hyponatremia, 84 Lipase, 47, 161 Hypothyroidism, 91 Lipid metabolism, 28, 41, 46-48, 94, 98, 119, L 122, 123. See also Fat and fatty acids Lactate, 35, 48, 64, 98, 171, 189 I Lipid oxidation, 116, 162, 184, 187 Lactate acidosis, 158 Lipizaners, 243 Iatrogenic iodism, 92 Lactation. See also Milk Lipoic acid, 187, 188 Icelandic horses, 95-96, 216, 220 body condition and, 20 Lipoprotein lipase activity, 46 IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor I), 22 breed differences, 19, 21 Listeria spp., 154, 156, 227 Immune function, 92, 96-97, 98, 109, 111, 115, calcium, 74, 156, 251 Listerosis, 156-157 123, 193, 195 chlorine, 87 Liver disease, 162 Immunoglobulin G, 116 copper, 90-91 Locoweed, 219 India grass (Sorgastrum nutans L.), 151, 212 diet composition and, 19-20 Lolitrem B, 158 Industry economics, 1 drinking behavior, 133 Lotonosis (Lotonosis banessi), 147 Inflammatory diseases, 50 dry matter intake, 70, 144, 145, 251 Lupin seed meal, 163 Insects, 152 energy requirements, 19-21, 147, 216 Lusitanos, 20 Insulin, 22, 39, 41, 46, 51, 87, 98, 99, 143, 171, equine hyperlipemia, 28 Lutein, 187 226, 241, 245, 249 fat supplementation and, 20, 49 Luteinizing hormone (LH), 22 Insulin-like growth factor I, 245 feeding behavior, 213, 215, 216, 217 Lycopene, 187 Intake energy, 3 fiber, 158 Lysine, 48, 54, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, Iodine iodine, 92 159, 163, 164-166, 207, 237, 246, absorption, 91 iron, 93-94 294, 296, 298, 300, 302, 304, 306 associations/interactions, 91 magnesium, 80-81 composition of inorganic sources, 309 nutrient requirement tables, 294-303 deficiency or excess, 70, 91-92 pasture feeding, 144, 145, 146, 147 M feed composition tables, 305, 307 phosphorus, 76, 78, 156 function, 91 potassium, 83 Macrominerals. See also Calcium; Chlorine; recommendations, 92 protein, 19, 61-62, 147, 150, 163 Magnesium; Phosphorus; Potassium; requirement tables, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303 sodium, 85 Sodium; Sulfur supplementation, 91 stage of, 20 defined, 69 sources, 91 vitamin A, 112 MADC (Matières Azotées Digestibles Cheval), Iodothyronine-5-deiodinase I, 95 vitamin E, 109, 116 56 Ionophores, 192-193, 219 water, 128, 130, 131, 132-133 Madurmycin, 192 Iron zinc, 98 Magnesium absorption, 92 Lactobacillus spp., 189 absorption, 45, 79, 197 associations/interactions, 88, 89, 92, 93, Lactose associations/interactions, 71, 75, 78, 79, 80, 163, 187 digestion, 38 81, 152, 186 composition of inorganic sources, 309-310 in mare milk, 20, 34, 311-314 bioavailability, 186 deficiency or excess, 70, 93 Laminitis composition of inorganic sources, 309 feed composition, 144, 305, 307 acute, 248, 249-250 deficiency or excess, 70, 79-80, 274 function, 92, 187 chronic, 248, 250 and enterolithiasis, 256 in mare milk, 93 etiology, 248-249 feed composition, 144, 305, 307 recommendations, 93-94 nutritional management, 143, 158, 205, 225, function, 79 requirement tables, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303 249-250 in mare milk, 80, 311-314 sources, 92, 93, 144, 220 pathogenesis, 249 medicinal applications, 80 supplements, 93 in wild equids in captivity, 276 processing effects, 259 Iron ammonium citrate, 185 Lasalocids, 192 recommendations, 80-81 Isoleucine, 54, 56, 62, 64, 65, 164-166, 207 Laxatives, 80, 154 requirement tables, 294, 296, 298, 300, 302 Lead, 88 sources, 79, 80, 144, 152, 197 Lectins, 193 supplements, 79, 253 J Legumes, 119, 142, 144, 147-148, 149, 150, in water, 135 152, 161, 165-166, 212, 214, 215, Maintenance Johnson grass, 156 240, 251. See also Forages; breed differences, 21 individual species calcium, 71, 75 Lentil, 164 carbohydrates, 38 K Leptin, 22, 98 chlorine, 86 Kale, 92 Leptospira, 119 copper, 89, 91 Kentucky bluegrass (Poa paratensis), 147, 151, Lespedeza (Kummerowia spp.), 148 donkeys, 272-273 153, 212, 215, 216 Leucine, 54, 56, 62, 64, 65, 164-166, 207 dry matter intake, 70, 154

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336 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES energy cost of, 8 Methionine, 54, 56, 62, 65, 87, 94, 121, 164- Miniature donkeys, 268, 270, 271, 272, 273, energy requirements, 6, 7-11, 20, 21, 236, 166, 207 274 238 Methylsulfonylmethane, 192 Miniature horses, 78, 195, 255 environment and, 10-11, 238 Microcystins, 137 Molasses, 36, 86, 88, 160, 164 forage feeding, 147 Microcystis, 137 Molds, 149, 150, 156, 161-162, 184, 257, 259 iodine, 92 Microcytic hypochromic anemia, 93 Molybdenum, 88, 136, 144 iron, 94 Microfilaria (Onchrocera cervicalis), 119 Monensin, 192, 219 magnesium, 80 Microminerals. See also Cobalt; Copper; Monosaccharides, 34, 35, 205 nutrient requirements table, 294-303 Iodine; Iron; Manganese; Selenium; Monounsaturated fatty acids, 44 old horses, 236 Zinc Moon blindness, 119 phosphorus, 77, 78 antioxidants, 187 Morgan horses, 14, 240, 255 potassium, 82-83 bioavailability of organic vs inorganic Mules, 268 protein, 57-58 sources, 194-196 Mustard, 92 riboflavin, 119 defined, 69, 174 Mycotoxins, 150, 157, 158, 161-162, 185-186, sodium, 85, 86 Milk. See also Lactation 193, 219 thiamin, 118 byproduct blends (cattle), 55, 58, 59, 163, vitamin A, 111 164 vitamin E, 115 colostrum, 80, 95, 112, 123, 196, 235 N water, 132-133 composition, 20, 35, 49, 62, 65, 78, 80, 90- Namib horses, 132 Maize silage, 154, 155 91, 93, 95, 98, 112, 116, 123, 196, Napier (Pennisetum spp.), 251 Maltose, 34 236, 272, 273, 311-314 Narasin, 192 Manganese digestibility, 235 National Animal Health Monitoring System, absorption, 94, 167 donkeys, 272, 273 162, 236 associations/interactions, 92, 93, 94 energy value, 311-314 National Forage Testing Association, 203, 204 composition of inorganic sources, 310 immunoglobulin content, 235 National Pollution Discharge Elimination deficiency or excess, 70, 94 mares, 19-21, 49, 74, 78, 90-91, 98, 116, System, 227 feed composition, 144, 305, 307 235, 273, 311-314 National Water Quality Network, 134 function, 94, 187 replacer, 60, 65, 89, 235, 236 Navicular disease, 191 recommendations, 94 yields, 19-20, 21, 61, 62, 74, 86, 197 Neotyphodium spp., 157, 158 requirement tables, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303 Millet, 164 Net energy (NE), 5-6, 12, 28, 34, 39, 236 sources, 94, 144 Mineral oil, 186 Neurotransmitters, 123 supplements, 167 Minerals. See Macrominerals; Microminerals; Neutral detergent solubles, 34 Manganese ascorbate, 190, 192 individual minerals New Zealand, water quality criteria, 134, 135 Mannose, 193 absorption, 70 Niacin Manure. See Fertilizers and manure age and, 72, 75-76, 89, 97 deficiency, 120 Maremmano Warmbloods, 243 analytical methods, 208 function, 119 Mares. See also Broodmares; Gestation; antioxidants, 187, 188, 189 requirements, 109, 120 Pregnancy; Lactation associations/interactions, 69, 71, 72, 73, 75, sources, 119-120 energy requirements, 16 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 85, 87-88, 89, supplements, 168 Matua, 151, 153 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 113, toxicity, 120 Matua prairiegrass (Bromus wildenowii), 147, 114, 115, 116, 122, 136, 187 Nickel, 99, 144 212 balance studies, 69, 71 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, 119 Mature horses bioavailability, 163, 166-167 Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, coprophagy, 220 body weight basis for recommendations, 69, 119 energy requirements for maintenance, 238 70 Night blindness, 110, 111 feeding behavior on pasture, 145, 147, 212- and bone growth disorders, 89, 246-247 Nitrates and nitrites, 136-137, 156, 227 216 cell content of forages, 144 Nitrogen. See also Crude protein; Protein and hay intakes and digestibilities, 151, 153 chelates, 165-166 amino acids; Urea minerals, 195, 196 determinants of feed content, 69, 144 balance studies, 56-57, 60 vitamin E, 115 digestibility, 70, 71, 72, 73, 77, 79, 85, 88, endogenous losses, 57, 58, 59, 63, 64 water, 128, 131 89, 91, 94, 97, 98 and enterolithiasis, 256 zinc, 97 endogenous losses, 70 environmental burden, 150, 227, 228 Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis), 147, 212 environmental influences, 144 fertilizer, 156 Meadow hay, 151, 153, 155 fetal deposition rate, 80 nonprotein sources, 54, 149, 154 Megaloblastic anemia, 121 in forages, 141, 150 Nitrogen-free extract, 45 Melanin, 88 licks, 84, 95, 274 Norepinephrine, 123 Metabolic acidosis, 82 maximum tolerable concentration, 69 North Carolina State University, 157 Metabolic alkalosis, 86 methodological limitations, 69-70 Nostoc, 137 Metabolic bone disease, 72, 89-90, 98 organic-trace-mineral feed additives, 194- Nutrient requirements Metabolizable energy (ME) 196 computer model for estimating, 285-292 calculation, 4-5, 7 for pregnancy, 69 tables, 294-303 carbohydrates, 34 in soil, 88, 93, 95, 144, 156, 220 Nutritional management Metallic matrix metalloproteinases, 249 supplements, 163, 166-167 of diseases, 50, 239-259 Metalloenzymes, 97 urinary fractional electrolyte excretion test, nursing and orphan foals, 235-236 Metallothionein, 97 69 old horses, 236-239 Methemoglobin, 136 in water, 135-136, 256

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INDEX 337 Nutritional muscular dystrophy, 96, 114, 115- Peas, 164 minerals, 71, 80, 82, 86, 89, 93, 96, 97 116 Pectins, 34, 37, 141, 142 mycotoxicosis susceptibility, 161 Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism Penicillium spp., 157, 162, 219, 257 palatability of feeds, 154 clinical signs, 250 Penitrim A, 157 processed feeds, 170, 171 nutritional factors, 71, 77, 250-251 Pentose phosphate pathway, 118 protein, 54, 57, 60, 61 nutritional management and prevention, 252 Percherons, 28, 110, 111, 118, 243 ryegrass staggers, 158 pathogenesis, 251-252 Performance horses, 9, 25-26, 27, 40, 190, 252 vitamins, 110, 112, 113, 121, 122, 247 Periodic ophthalmia, 119 water, 130, 131, 132, 133, 271, 272 Petrolatum and petroleum jelly, 186 wild, 144 O Phalaris aquatica, 142 Population of horses, 1 Phenylalanine, 54, 62, 65, 164-166, 207 Porphyrin, 123 Oat hay, 151, 153, 156, 166, 226, 241 Phosphofructokinase, 46 Potash, 149 Oat hulls, 4, 37, 159 Phospholipids, 46, 49, 50 Potassium Oat straw, 152, 214, 269 Phosphorus absorption, 81-82, 83 Oats (Avena sativa), 38-39, 76, 110, 118, 119, absorption, 45, 76-77, 113, 189, 197 associations/interactions, 73, 79, 85, 95 120, 121, 131, 134, 152, 159, 160, associations/interactions, 76, 78, 79, 81, 92, composition of inorganic sources, 309 161, 164, 168, 169, 170, 172, 190, 94, 113, 156, 160, 161 deficiency or excess, 70, 82, 83, 274 212 calcium:phosphorus ratio, 71, 72, 77, 75, and enterolithiasis, 256 Obesity, 28, 146, 154, 225-226, 249, 272, 274 161, 244, 246, 247, 235, 244, 248, environment and, 82, 84, 219 Ochratoxins, 157, 162 250-252 feed composition, 144, 154, 160, 305, 307 Oilseeds and oilseed meals, 81, 120, 204, 208 composition of inorganic sources, 308 and feeding behavior, 82 Old horses deficiency or excess, 70, 77, 113, 156, 246, function, 81, 239 caloric restriction, 237 247, 250-252, 274 furosemide and, 84 Cushing's disease, 237 and enterolithiasis, 256 hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, 239-240 defined, 236 environmental burden, 76, 219, 227, 228 in mare milk, 311-314 energy requirements, 8, 236-237 feed composition, 144, 149, 154, 160, 161, parenteral administration, 82 exercise, 236, 237 305, 307 processing effects, 259 feed form, 237 function, 76, 246 recommendations, 82-84 feeding management, 252, 226 in mare milk, 311-314 requirement tables, 294, 296, 298, 300, 302 micronutrient requirements, 237 old horses, 237 restricted diets, 240 protein and amino acid requirements, 237 processing effects, 259 sources, 81-82, 83, 144, 154, 240 Oligosaccharides, 34, 35, 193, 205 protein intakes and, 65 supplementation, 82, 83, 84, 253 Olive oil, 163 recommendations, 77-79 sweat losses, 82, 83-84, 238 Onagers, 274-275, 276 requirements, 237, 294, 296, 298, 300, 302 and water balance, 129, 131 Oral rehydration therapy, 82 sources, 76-77, 144, 154, 197 Potato, 165 Orchardgrass (Dactylis spp.), 77, 142, 143, 145, supplements, 92, 99 Pregnancy. See also Gestation 146, 147, 153, 156, 212, 215, 217 in water, 137 calcium, 73-74 Osteoarthritis, 190, 191, 192 Phytase, 76, 79, 189, 190 chlorine, 87 Osteocalcin, 244 Phytates, 71, 76, 156, 160, 189 copper, 90, 246-247, 248 Osteochondrosis, 72, 77, 89, 90, 97, 242-243, Phytochemicals, 190 drinking behavior, 133 247, 248 Planktothrix/Oscillataria, 137 dry matter intake, 70 Osteodysgenesis, 89 Pleasure horses, 221, 222 energy cost of, 18 Osteodystrophia fibrosa, 156, 250 Polo ponies, 26-27 energy requirements, 17-19, 28 Osteomalacia, 77 Polysaccharide storage myopathy equine hyperlipemia, 28 Osteopenia, 72 clinical signs, 240-241 fat supplementation, 49 Oxalates, 71, 76, 77, 79, 156, 251 nutritional factors, 241 feeding behavior, 215 Oxidative stress, 116, 187, 188, 189 nutritional management, 99, 224, 241-242 feeding value of pastures, 146 Oxygen utilization, 22-23, 24, 25 pathogenesis, 99, 241 folate, 122 Polysaccharides, 34, 194, 195, 204, 205 iodine, 92 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, 44, 49-50, 114 iron, 93 P Ponies magnesium, 80 Paints, 15 carbohydrates, 37, 38, 39, 170, 171 nutrient requirement tables, 294-303 Palm oil, 163 developmental orthopedic disease, 243, 247 oligosaccharides, 193 Panic grasses, 251 digestion/digestibility of nutrients, 152, 153, phosphorus, 78 Pangola grass (Digitaria recumbens), 251 170, 171, 269 potassium, 83 Pantothenic acid, 109, 123 dry matter intake, 268 protein, 56, 60-61 Paraffin, 186 energy cost of work, 270 protozoal myeloencephalitis, 122 Parakeratosis, 97 energy requirements, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 20, riboflavin, 119 Parasites, 148, 192, 217-218, 219, 226 23, 26-27, 28, 270 sodium, 85 Parathyroid hormone, 71, 247, 251 enterolithiasis, 256 thiamin, 118 Paspalum (Paspalum dilantatum), 212 fats and fatty acids, 45, 47, 50, 51, 245 vitamin A, 110, 112 Pasture. See Fresh pastures feeding behavior, 213, 214, 217, 218, 219 vitamin E, 112, 116 Patulin, 157 forage intake, 144, 151, 155 water, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133 Peanut meal, 118, 162, 163, 164 laminitis, 249 weight gain, 19 Peanut oil, 163, 218 listeriosis, 156-157 yeast supplement, 197 Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), 148, 212 maintenance requirements, 270 zinc, 98

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338 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES Probiotics, 192-193, 189, 196 Q sources, 119 Progesterone, 60 supplements, 168 Prolactin, 22 Quarter horses, 14, 15, 19, 21, 49, 73, 78, 130, toxicity, 119 Proline, 207 153, 192, 193, 239, 240, 241, 242, Rice bran, 118, 161, 165, 241, 250 Propionate, 7, 35, 37, 194, 195 243, 244, 245, 247 Rice oil, 162 Propionic acid, 149, 158, 184 Rickets, 113 Prostaglandins, 44, 50, 254 Rye, 160 Proteases, 189 R Ryegrass, 130, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, Protein and amino acids. See also Crude 148, 150, 152, 157, 158, 212, 213, Racing and race horses, 25, 26, 48-49, 75, 78, protein; Nitrogen 249 84, 96, 99, 113, 122, 123, 147, 158, and acid-base balance, 64, 65 Ryegrass staggers, 158, 219 187, 189, 222, 252-253 age and, 60, 237 Ragwort (Sennecio spp.), 148, 154 analysis of feeds, 57, 207, 208 Rape, 156 associations/interactions, 65, 120, 163, 239 Rare earth elements, 99 S bioavailability, 56-57, 172 Ration formulation and evaluation Saccharomyces spp., 196, 197 and bone growth disorders, 244, 246 determining nutrient content of feeds, 280- Safflower meal, 165 catabolism, 6 281 Safflower oil, 162, 163, 218 cell content of forages, 141, 143-144 examples, 281-284 Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), 148, 212 deficiency, 48, 54, 57, 60, 65, 121, 163, 244 identifying requirements, 280 Salinomycin, 192 digestion and utilization, 45, 54-57, 59, 65, selection of feeds, 280 Salmonella, 189, 227-228 120, 145-146, 149, 155, 163, 171- Reactive oxygen species, 186-187, 258 Satratoxins, 157 172, 196-197, 206 Recovered energy, 5 Scurvy, 123 donkeys, 271 Recurrent airway obstruction Seasonal differences dry matter intake and, 55, 62, 63, 155 nutritional factors, 124, 257-258 feeding behavior, 213, 217 energy value, 3, 4, 5, 6 nutritional management and prevention, forage nutrient content, 143 excess, 65, 244, 274 187, 188, 194, 258-259 growth rate, 15, 244 for exercise, 58, 59-60, 62-64, 65 pathogenesis and clinical symptoms, 257, water quality, 137 fat supplementation and, 48, 62, 239 258 Seaweed, 91, 92 feed composition, 145, 160 prevalence and risk factors, 257 Selenium and feeding behavior, 220 Recurrent seasonal pruritis (sweet itch), 50 absorption, 95 feeding management, 65-66 Recurrent uveitis, 119 associations/interactions, 88, 91, 95, 96, forages, 149, 155, 256 Red clover (Trifolium pratense), 145, 146, 148, 114, 115, 116 French MADC system, 56 149, 150, 154, 155, 156, 157, 212 composition of inorganic sources, 95, 310 function and structure, 54 Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinaceae), 147, deficiency or excess, 70, 95-96, 114, 116, and glycogen utilization, 64 151, 153, 160, 212 156 for growth, 58-62, 65, 66 Reproduction. See also Breeding; Gestation; feed composition tables, 305, 307 ideal, 64-65 Pregnancy function, 94-95, 96-97, 114, 187, 188, 189, for lactation, 19, 61-62 antibiotics and, 192 258 Maillard products, 149, 172 energy requirement, 16-22 in mare milk, 95 maintenance requirement, 57-58 external parasites and, 218 recommendations, 96-97 in mare milk, 20, 65, 311-314 mineral status and, 65, 91-92, 195 requirement tables, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303 and mineral absorption, 72 plant toxins and, 156, 158, 162 sources, 95, 195, 196 muscle turnover rate, 63 Reproductive efficiency supplementation, 95, 96, 187, 188, 189, nonprotein nitrogen sources, 54-55 body condition and, 21-22, 27 195, 258 old horses, 237 energy status and, 21-22 yeast, 195, 196 pregnancy, 56, 60-61 fat supplementation and, 49, 50 Selenocysteine, 96, 196 in processed feeds, 163, 171-172, 206 mineral source and, 195 Selenocystine, 96 quality (amino acid profile), 54, 55-56, 59, vitamin A and, 109, 111, 112 Selenomethionine, 96, 196 61, 62, 64-65, 66, 87, 163, 164-166, vitamin E and, 116 Selle Francais, 19 207 Respiration and respiratory problems, 10, 25, Serine, 207 requirements, 19, 54, 56-66 47, 250 Sesame meal, 165 supplemental, 4, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, Resting metabolic rate, 10 Sesame oil, 163 65, 118, 163, 164-166 Retinol binding protein, 111 Setaria (Setaria spp.), 156, 212, 251 and water balance, 129, 131 Retinyl-acetate, 110 Shetland ponies, 46, 51, 119, 123 Proteinates, 195 Retinyl-palmitate, 110, 112 Shivers, 241 Protozoa, 37, 122, 137 Rhinopneumonia, 123 Show horses, 25, 190, 222 Przewalski's horses, 216-217, 274, 275, 276, Rhizoctonia, 157 Silage. See Ensilaged forages 277 Rhizomucor, 257 Silicon/silica, 99, 153, 185, 204 Purine, 121 Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana), 147, 212 Silver, 88 Purple pigeon grass (Selaria incrassate), 251 Ribgrass (Plantago lanceolata), 212 Skeletal health, 72, 74-75, 77, 81, 89, 90, 91, Pyrantel tartrate, 192 Riboflavin 92, 94, 97, 98, 99, 111, 113, 115, Pyrimethamine, 122 deficiency, 118-119 195, 244-248 Pyruvate dehydrogenase, 118 function, 119 Slaframine, 157 Pythomyces, 157 requirements, 109, 119, 295, 297, 299, 301, Smelter smoke syndrome, 94 303 Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis), 147, 212

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INDEX 339 Smooth stalked meadow grass, 212 Straws supplements, 168 Sodium bedding, 257-258 toxicity, 118 absorption, 84-85 feed, 88, 110, 116, 129, 152, 157, 158, 214, Thoroughbreds, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 24, associations/interactions, 73, 76, 85 215, 269 25, 27, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 61, 84, composition of inorganic sources, 308 Sudan grass, 156 113, 121, 122, 123, 124, 130, 132, deficiency or excess, 70, 84, 85 Sugar beets, 157, 160, 164 145, 146, 147, 187, 188, 189, 193, from de-icing salt, 136 Sulfadiazine, 122 212, 213, 220, 221, 222, 235, 240, and enterolithiasis, 256 Sulfur 242, 243, 244, 245, 247, 252 exercise and, 70, 82, 83 absorption, 87 Threonine, 48, 54, 56, 59, 62, 64, 65, 164-166, feed composition, 144, 154, 305, 307 associations/interactions, 87, 88, 96, 136 207, 237, 246 function, 84, 239, 240 composition of inorganic sources, 309 Thromboxane, 50 furosemide and, 85 deficiency or excess, 87 Thyroid hormones, 22, 91, 94 in mare milk, 311-314 and enterolithiasis, 256 Thyroid stimulating hormone, 22 processing effects, 259 feed composition, 144, 305, 307 Thyroxine, 91 recommendations, 85-86 function, 87, 192 Timothy (Phleum pretense), 120, 121, 143, 147, requirement tables, 294, 296, 298, 300, 302 recommendations, 69, 87 151, 153, 158, 212, 240, 276 sources, 84-85, 144, 154, 227 requirement tables, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303 Tocopherols, 114, 184, 188. See also Vitamin E supplements, 84, 253 sources, 87, 144, 192 Tocotrienols, 114 sweat losses, 84-85, 238 sulphates in water, 135, 136 Toronto Zoo, 274 and water balance, 129, 131, 132 Summer-pasture-associated obstructive Total body water, 128 in water, 135, 136 pulmonary disease, 257 Total digestible nutrients, 9 Sodium bicarbonate, 86 Sunflower meal, 163, 165 Total Maximum Daily Load Standards, 228 Sodium zeolite A, 99 Sunflower oil, 162, 163 Toxin- or endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca Soil erosion, 228 Superoxide dismutase, 88, 187 arundinacea), 147 Somali donkeys, 271 Swainsone, 219 Training. See Exercise Sorghum fodder, 269 Swedish Standardbreds, 14, 243 Trakehners, 243 Sorghum grain, 156, 160, 165, 170, 172 Swedish Warmbloods, 14, 243 Transketolase, 118 Sorghum hay, 93 Sweet clover, 156, 157 Transportation of horses, water requirements, Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrids, 156 Sweet feed, 46, 72, 76, 152, 158, 159, 162, 185, 130-131, 133, 135 Soybean hulls, 4, 35, 37, 160, 161 190, 215, 241 Tricetum flavescens, 71 Soybean meal, 35, 37, 55, 57, 58, 59, 62, 86, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), 212 Tricothecenes, 157 119, 120, 163, 165, 172, 246 Triglycerides, 6, 28, 44, 46, 47 Soybean oil, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51, 115, 162, 163, Triiodothyronine, 91 218, 239 T Triticale, 165, 224 Soybeans, whole, 92, 161 Trotters, 243 T-2 toxin, 161 Speed of travel, 22-23, 25 Trypsin, 161, 163, 172 Teeth, 99, 237 Stachybotrys spp., 157, 257 Tryptophan, 54, 65, 120, 207 Temperament Stall confinement Tyrosine, 164-166 diet and, 49, 79 and compulsive behavior, 25, 220, 221, 222 Tumor necrosis factor, 50 and gastric ulcer syndrome, 253 and enterolithiasis, 256 nervousness, 79, 98 and exercise, 247-248 Temperature, ambient. See also Cold; Heat and feeding behavior, 216-217, 218, 220, U acclimation, 10, 84, 129-130 221, 222 and body condition score, 10 Unit conversion tables, 315 and gastric ulcer syndrome, 253 critical lower and upper, 11, 237-238 University of California–Davis, 255 and recurrent airway obstruction, 257-258 and energy requirements, 10-11, 15 University of Illinois, 64 Stall-kicking, 25 and fat supplementation, 11, 238-239 Unthriftiness, 82, 99, 218 Stallions and feeding management, 81, 217, 237-239 Urea, 54-55, 59, 61, 64, 65, 95, 163, 227. See breeding, 16-17 and forage nutrient content, 142 also Nitrogen; Protein energy requirements, 9, 16-17, 28 and growth rate, 15 Urinary fractional electrolyte excretion test, 69 feeding behavior, 213 hay storage, 150 U.S. Department of Agriculture, 208 maintenance requirements, 16-17 and maintenance requirements, 10-11 Cooperative State Research, Education, and nutrient requirements table, 294-303 and mycotoxin contamination of feed, 161 Extension Service, 134 ponies, 8 and nutrient losses in sweat, 82, 84, 85, 238 National Animal Health Monitoring System, Standardbreds, 10, 19, 23, 25, 27, 47, 48, 75, thermoneutral zone, 10 162 84, 96, 112, 129, 130, 132, 133, 134, and water balance, 128, 129, 131-132, 238 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 227 192, 221, 240, 253 Teratogenesis, 111 U.S. Geological Survey, 134 Starches, 5, 34, 35, 37, 38-39, 45, 38-39, 46, Tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), 184 49, 141, 142, 143, 158, 159, 160, Tetany, 79-80 161, 169-171, 205, 223-224, 225, 240, 241, 242, 249 Tetracycline, 192 V Thiamin Stargrass, 144 Valine, 54, 62, 64, 65, 207 deficiency, 118 Starvation, 6, 28, 226 Vanadium, 99 dietary sources, 118 Steroid hormones, 123 Vetch (Vicia atropurpurea), 212 function, 87, 118 Stock horses, 145. See also individual breeds Virginiamycin, 192-193 requirements, 109, 118, 295, 297, 299, 301, Strangles, 123 303 Strawberry clover (Trifolium fragiferum), 212

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340 NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS OF HORSES Vitamin A estimating/determining requirements, 109 protein intake and, 65 absorption, 50, 110 microbial synthesis, 118, 119, 120, 121, suckling foals, 132 associations/interactions, 71, 112, 122, 187 122, 123 work or exercise, 133 deficiency, 110-111, 247 oxidation effects, 184 Weanling horses feed composition tables, 305, 307 relative dose response test, 111 antibiotics, 192 function, 71, 109, 187 seasonal variations, 112 calcium, 72, 75 in mare milk, 112 supplements, 167, 168 copper, 88-89 requirements, 109, 111-113, 272, 295, 297, upper safe level, 109 cribbing, 252 299, 301, 303 Volatile fatty acids, 5, 6-7, 35, 37, 44, 46, 141, dry matter intake, 145 sources, 109-110 189, 193, 253, 269-270 feeding behavior, 221 supplements, 109, 110, 112, 167, 168 feeding management, 225 units, 109-110 flavor preferences, 185 toxicity, 111 W growth requirements, 12, 59 Vitamin B6, 109, 123 heat or cold stress, 10, 11 Warmblood horses, 14, 46, 51, 240, 241, 246, 257 Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), 87-88, 109, minerals, 195 Waste management, 65, 76, 77, 148, 150, 195, 122-123 pasture feeding, 147 220, 226-228 Vitamin C stress, 49, 222, 235, 252 Water intake age and, 124, 237 thiamin, 118 dietary effects, 82, 130-131 associations/interactions, 115, 187 vitamin A, 111 donkeys, 271-272 bioavailability, 187 water, 130 drinking patterns of horses, 133-134 deficiency, 123 yeast supplement, 197 excessive, 157 function, 123, 187, 188, 258 Weaving, 25 from feeds, 141 requirements, 109, 123-124 Weight gain, 10 measuring, 134 sources, 123 Welsh ponies, 155, 217, 240 restricted, 134 supplements, 168, 187-188, 258 Wheat bran, 118, 160, 165, 169, 194, 250, 256- sodium balance and, 85, 86 toxicity, 123, 187-188 257 temperature effects, 131-132, 135, 238 Vitamin D Wheat grain, 118, 156, 165, 170 Water losses. See also Dehydration absorption, 50 Wheat midds, 160, 165 body weight as measure of, 84-86 associations/interactions, 113 Wheat straw, 129, 152, 166, 269, 271, 272 estimating, 84, 86, 133 deficiency, 113, 247 Whey, 165 evaporative, 129, 271 feed composition tables, 305, 307 White bent (Agrostis gigantea), 212 fecal, 128-129 function, 113 White clover (Trifolium repens), 145, 146, 147, lactational, 128, 130 requirements, 109, 113-114, 295, 297, 299, 148, 212 nutrient losses in, 63, 64, 65, 70, 82, 83, 84, 301, 303 White muscle disease, 95, 114 87, 238 sources, 113 White sweet clover (Melilotus alba), 156, 157 respiratory, 130 supplements, 113, 167, 168 Wild equids in captivity sweat, 63, 64, 70, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 129- toxicity, 113 asses, 274, 276, 277 130, 133, 238 Vitamin E body condition scoring, 277 urine, 64, 129, 131 absorption, 50 colic, 275 Water management, 134 associations/interactions, 95, 96, 112, 114, enterolithiasis, 275-276 Water quality 115, 116, 187 feeding behavior, 144, 216 adaptation to, 135 deficiency, 114-115, 276 feeding management, 216, 274-275 algae, 137-138, 227 feed composition tables, 305, 307 kiangs, 274, 276 bacteria, 138 function, 114, 184, 187, 188, 258 laminitis, 276 chemical criteria, 135-136 in mare milk, 116 nutritional disorders, 275-277 hardness, 135, 136 requirements, 109, 115-117, 295, 297, 299, obesity/starvation, 274, 277 minerals, 135, 136, 227, 256 301, 303 onagers, 274-275, 276 nitrates and nitrites, 136-137 sources, 114 orphaned foals, 275 pH, 135-136 supplements, 114, 116-117, 167, 168, 258 Przewalski's horses, 216-217, 274, 275, 276, physical criteria, 135 toxicity, 115 277 protozoa, 137 Vitamin K vitamin E deficiency/myelopathy, 276 standards, 134-135 absorption, 50 zebras, 80, 274, 275, 276, 277 tap water, 86 deficiency, 117 Wood chewing, 152, 158, 220-221, 222, 224 total soluble salts, 135 dietary sources, 117 Work. See exercise/work waste management considerations, 227-228 function, 117 Water requirements requirements, 109, 117-118 body weight and, 131, 132, 133 X supplements, 167, 168 breed differences, 132 toxicity, 117 diet composition and, 128, 129, 131-132 Xylans, 159, 190 Vitamins. See also individual vitamins donkeys, 129, 131, 132, 271-272 adaptive response, 110 dry matter intake and, 128, 130, 132 antioxidants, 114, 115, 119, 123 associations/interactions, 95, 96, 112, 114, environment and, 128, 129, 131-132, 133, 134 Y exercise and, 63, 64, 70, 84, 86, 87, 129, 115, 118, 120, 122 Yearling horses, 10, 59, 72, 73, 75, 81, 88, 90, 130, 131, 132, 133 and bone growth disorders, 246-247 94, 97, 131, 145, 147, 151, 153, 167, for maintenance, 132-133 defined, 109 193, 196, 213, 215, 238, 245. See pregnancy and lactation, 132-133 drug interactions, 122 also Growth

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INDEX 341 Yeast supplements, 197 Zebras, 80, 274, 275, 276, 277 feed composition, 144, 305, 307 Yellow prussiate of soda, 185 Zeolites, 186 function, 97, 187, 189 Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), 157 Zinc in mare milk, 98, 311-314 absorption, 97, 167 recommendations, 98 associations/interactions, 88, 89, 92, 97, 186 requirement tables, 295, 297, 299, 301, 303 Z bioavailability, 186 sources, 97, 144, 227 composition of inorganic sources, 310 supplements, 167, 187, 189 Zearalenone, 161, 186, 219 deficiency or excess, 70, 97, 247 Zinc:copper ratio, 97 Zearolone, 157