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with the exceptions of rank and grant funding, for which the beneficial effect of a grant was more pronounced for women.

Other Job Offers

Finding 4-15: Differences in the probability of receiving an outside offer for male and female faculty depended on discipline. In electrical engineering and in mathematics, women were more likely to have received an outside offer, while the trend was reversed in chemistry and physics. Men and women reported approximately the same probability of having received at least one outside offer in biology and civil engineering. The only two variables that predicted the likelihood of receiving an outside offer were prestige of the institution and the amount of grant funding, which demonstrated the same effect for male and female faculty. (Appendix 4-23)

Finding 4-16: There was no gender difference among faculty who were planning to leave and who had received an outside offer in the past 5 years,30 except in electrical engineering, where women were more likely than men to be planning to leave and to have received a recent outside offer. The committee viewed these data as a measure of faculty dissatisfaction. (Appendix 4-24)

In this chapter, we set out to inquire if there were gender differences in the day-to-day academic lives of male and female faculty members. We wanted to determine if there were differences in professional activities, institutional resources, and climate, and if these influenced various important outcomes. Perhaps the most noteworthy finding is how much more similar the lives of male and female faculty seem to be based on our surveys, compared to the striking differences found in earlier research. The survey data indicate the importance of not simply relying on anecdotal information or past, individual experiences and emphasize the complexity of issues such as resource allocation and climate.

The overall data from this study send a positive signal about the institutional climates at Research I institutions, and this should encourage young women as well as men to pursue academic careers in math, science, and engineering, with the new awareness that their abilities rather than their gender will influence their experiences and their ultimate academic success.

Although the survey results do indicate that male and female faculty are encountering comparable opportunities in many ways, it is important to remember that these are group data. There may very well continue to be women who are experiencing fewer opportunities and less positive outcomes, at least in part because of their gender. Clearly, our survey questions, while extensive, were not exhaustive, and there were many areas not addressed.


However, planning to leave or receiving outside offers are less than ideal proxies for job satisfaction. For example, faculty may plan to leave a position to retire.

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