responsibilities as the reason for their work status in 1999. On the other hand, 41 percent of men and 8 percent of women cited retirement as the reason for part-time employment. Thus, as with unemployment, variations in male/female age distribution, as well as varying family responsibilities, are factors in part-time employment choices.7
Figure A2-3 examines the proportion of women among full-time employed doctoral scientists and engineers between 1995 and 2003. The proportion of women among those employed full-time, while still small, was rising slowly. Increases “in the number of women among new Ph.D.s do not translate directly into increases in the proportion of women in the science and engineering labor force. Each new cohort of Ph.D.s represents only a small fraction of the total number of scientists and engineers. The proportion of women in the S&E labor force must increase slowly as older, predominantly male cohorts retire and are replaced by new cohorts that have a greater proportion of women” (NRC, 2001a:63).
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Appendix 2-1: Review of Literature and Relevant Research ."
Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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