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of $68,000, and female faculty with contracts of the same length earned an average salary of $55,000” (Knapp et al., 2005). According to an AAUP survey, women’s salaries for the academic year 2003 to 2004 continued to remain lower than men’s salaries in every category (Curtis, 2005).18 Curtis explained that women were “still disproportionately found in lower-ranked faculty positions, including non-tenure-track lecturer or unranked positions, which tend to pay lower salaries,” and women were “more likely than men to be employed at associate degree and baccalaureate colleges, where salaries are lower” (p. 29). However, studies of salaries of science and engineering faculty, which controlled for such factors as career age, discipline, institution type, rank, and productivity still found disparities in salary (Ginther, 2001, 2004; NRC, 2001b). There was some evidence that the gender gap in academic salaries was shrinking over time (see, for instance, Holden, 2004).

Other resources may not have been equitably held. The 1999 Massachusetts Institute of Technology study (MIT, 1999), for instance, noted women faculty had less laboratory space than men. University departments doled out a variety of resources, including access to research assistants, travel money, lab space and equipment, summer research money, etc.

A third area where inequities were seen to exist was in academic workloads (Fogg, 2003a; Jacobs, 2004; Nettles et al., 2000; Park, 1996). As Park (1996) explained, “Though all university faculty are expected to teach and to serve, as well as to carry out research, male and female faculty exhibit significantly different patterns of research, teaching, and service. Men, as a group, devote a higher portion of their time to research activities, whereas women, as a group, devote a much higher percentage of their time to teaching and service activities than do men” (p. 54). An examination of fall 2003 full-time S&E faculty at Research I institutions in the Department of Education’s 2004 NSOPF found that men and women spent, on average, 35.8 percent and 30.3 percent of their time on research activities, respectively. Conversely, women and men spent 46.9 and 41.3 percent of their time on instruction, respectively.19 Men and women spent almost the same percentage of time on administrative and other activities.20 Disparities in research


Perna’s (2002) analysis suggested that female faculty were less likely to receive supplemental earnings, such as from institutional sources or private consulting.


Data were created using the Department of Education’s Data Analysis System (DAS), available online at Gender was used as the row variable. The column variables were mean percent time spent on research activities, mean percent time spent on instruction, and mean percent time spent on other unspecified activities. Filters were only Research I institutions, full-time employed, with faculty status, with instructional duties for credit, and with principal fields of teaching as agriculture and home economics, engineering, first-professional health sciences, nursing, other health sciences, biological sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, and computer sciences.


Administrative and other activities are defined as those that occur at the respondent’s institution such as administration, professional growth, service, and other activities not related to teaching or research.

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