peripheral neurophysiological processes. So, one question would be “How can we disrupt the enemy’s motivation to fight? Other questions raised by controlling the mind: How can we make people trust us more? What if we could help the brain to remove fear or pain? Is there a way to make the enemy obey our commands?

  • Can cognitive states be used to drive devices? This general question leads to specific questions about applications for limb and organ control, immobilization, and repair. Applications, both positive and negative, may also be imagined for interfering with the mind to enhance the senses of hearing, sight, smell, and touch. Alternatively, physical agents such as white noise could be used to impair one or more senses. In the area of neuropsychopharmacology, drugs could target specific sensory receptors, perhaps to enhance, perhaps to interfere.


This chapter provides an overview of cognitive-behavioral neuroscience research and poses a series of questions that decision makers will probably want answered. Chapter 2 provides detail on areas of interest selected by the committee. Chapter 3 builds on Chapter 2 by illustrating emerging areas of cognitive-behavioral neuroscience technologies. Chapter 4 showcases two disciplines, neuroethics and the cultural underpinnings of social neuroscience, that could assist intelligence analysts by providing a larger context beyond fixed definitions of cognitive-behavioral neuroscience. Chapter 5 includes committee assessments of various aspects of cognitive-behavioral neuroscience using the technology warning methodology described earlier in this chapter. Appendix C provides a full account and explanation of the methodology.


NRC (National Research Council). 2005. Avoiding Surprise in an Era of Global Technology Advances. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available from

NRC. 2006. Critical Technology Accessibility. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available from

NRC. 2008. Nanophotonics: Accessibility and Applicability. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available from

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