. "Appendix E: The Evolution of U.S. Government Threat Reduction Programs." Global Security Engagement: A New Model for Cooperative Threat Reduction. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009.
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Global Security Engagement: A New Model for Cooperative Threat Reduction
Administration failed to certify Russia for DOD Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) funding because it could not certify Russia’s compliance with its obligations under the Biological and Chemical Weapons Conventions. This finding (which continued in subsequent years) delayed several ongoing programs and required a waiver before programs could proceed. The program disruption affected principally DOD’s programs and a few State Department efforts; most DOE and State Department efforts were unaffected. Following negotiations with Congress, annual waiver authority was granted for the next 3 years.
Congress asked that within 180 days of enactment of the National Defense Authorization Act that DOD produce “a report to Congress describing the steps that have been taken to develop cooperative threat reduction programs with India and Pakistan.” Such a report was to include “recommendations for changes in any provision of existing law that was an impediment to the full establishment of such programs, a timetable for implementation of such programs, and an estimated 5-year budget that would be required to fully fund such programs” (HR 3338). There is no evidence that this report was ever produced.
The omnibus appropriations bill authorized the State Department to use Nonproliferation and Disarmament Funds (NDF) “for such countries other than the Independent States of the FSU and international organizations when it is in the national security interest of the United States to do so” (H.J. Res. 2). This language was maintained in subsequent years.
The State Department had already used NDF for transporting highly enriched uranium out of Belgrade, and by 2004 would be using it to aid in Libyan Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) dismantlement. Similarly, the State Department’s program to redirect former weapon scientists began work in Iraq in 2003 and in Libya in 2004.