and valuable. This will lead to greater confidence, transparency, and, ultimately, enhanced national security. The legislative framework, funding mechanisms, and program leveraging opportunities should be structured to support more effective threat reduction initiatives across DOD, other USG departments and agencies, international partners, and NGOs (Recommendation 3-3).

  1. Program planning should be developed out of a strategic process and be matched by a strategic budget process that produces a multiyear budget plan and distributes funding across agencies based on agency ability to respond to program requirements. As needed, agency legislative authorities should be revised to include a national security dimension (Recommendation 3-3a).

  2. Congress should provide comingling authority to all agencies implementing programs under CTR 2.0 as a way to encourage other partners to contribute funds to global security engagement efforts (Recommendation 3-3b).

  3. To maximize the effectiveness of CTR 2.0, the DOD CTR legal frameworks and authorities should be reassessed. DOD should undertake a systematic study of the CTR Umbrella Agreement protection provisions, what purposes they serve in which circumstances, whether there might be less intrusive means of accomplishing the provisions’ goals, and when the provisions are necessary in their present form. In addition, all USG CTR programs should identify legal and policy tools that can promote the sustainability of U.S.-funded CTR work and provide greater implementation flexibility (Recommendation 3-3c).

  4. Congress should grant DOD limited “notwithstanding authority” for the CTR program—perhaps a maximum of 10 percent of the overall annual appropriation and subject to congressional notification—to give the program the additional flexibility it will need in future engagements (Recommendation 3-3d).

The CTR concept began almost two decades ago and programs should periodically be reviewed and evaluated. The Secretary of Defense should direct the review and reformulation of the DOD CTR program in support of the new model of global security engagement proposed in this report and work with the White House, Secretary of State, Secretary of Energy, and other cabinet and agency officers to ensure full coordination and effective implementation of DOD programs in this new model. The review should also include broader military components, including the Unified Combatant Commands, the full set of programs in DTRA, DOD health and research programs, and other DOD assets (Recommendation 4-2).

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