Advice on the Department of Energy’s CLEANUP TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP

Gaps and Bridges

Committee on Development and Implementation of a Cleanup Technology Roadmap

Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board

Division of Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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Committee on Development and Implementation of a Cleanup Technology Roadmap Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board Division of Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropri- ate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. DE-FC01-04EW07022 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-13231-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-13231-2 Additional copies of this report are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2009 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CLEANUP TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP EDWIN P. PRZYBYLOWICZ (Chair), Eastman Kodak Company (retired), Webster, New York ALLEN G. CROFF (Vice Chair), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired), St. Augustine, Florida RICHELLE M. ALLEN-KING, University of Buffalo, New York SUE B. CLARK, Washington State University, Pullman PATRICIA J. CULLIGAN, Columbia University, New York, New York RACHEL J. DETWILER, Braun Intertec Corporation, Bloomington, Minnesota THOMAS F. GESELL, Idaho State University, Pocatello GARY P. HALADA, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York CAROLYN L. HUNTOON, Consultant, Barrington, Rhode Island EDWARD LAHODA, Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ROBIN ROGERS, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa GARY S. SAYLER, University of Tennessee, Knoxville ANDREW M. SESSLER, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California J. LESLIE SMITH, University of British Columbia, Vancouver Staff KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Senior Board Director, Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board JOHN WILEY, Senior Program Officer TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative and Financial Associate MANDI M. BOYKIN, Senior Program Assistant SHAUNTEÉ WHETSTONE, Senior Program Assistant JAMES YATES, JR., Office Assistant iv

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NUCLEAR AND RADIATION STUDIES BOARD RICHARD A. MESERVE (Chair), Carnegie Institution, Washington, D.C. S. JAMES ADELSTEIN (Vice Chair), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts JOONHONG AHN, University of California, Berkeley JOEL S. BEDFORD, Colorado State University, Fort Collins SUE B. CLARK, Washington State University, Pullman ALLEN G. CROFF, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired), St. Augustine, Florida PATRICIA J. CULLIGAN, Columbia University, New York, New York SARAH C. DARBY, Clinical Trial Service Unit, Oxford, United Kingdom JAY DAVIS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (retired) ROGER L. HAGENGRUBER, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque DAVID G. HOEL, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston HEDVIG HRICAK, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York THOMAS H. ISAACS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California PAUL A. LOCKE, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland BORIS F. MYASOEDOV, Russian Academy of Sciences JOHN C. VILLFORTH, Food and Drug Law Institute (retired), Gaithersburg, Maryland RAYMOND G. WYMER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired), Oak Ridge, Tennessee PAUL L. ZIEMER, Purdue University (retired), West Lafayette, Indiana Staff KEVIN D. CROWLEY, Director MICAH D. LOWENTHAL, Senior Program Officer JOHN R. WILEY, Senior Program Officer DANIELA STRICKLIN, Program Officer TONI GREENLEAF, Administrative and Financial Associate LAURA D. LLANOS, Administrative and Financial Associate MANDI M. BOYKIN, Senior Program Assistant SHAUNTEÉ WHETSTONE, Senior Program Assistant JAMES YATES, JR., Office Assistant v

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Preface This study follows a series of studies by the National Research Council of the National Academies on various aspects of the cleanup of sites that formerly produced materials for this nation’s nuclear defense. The Depart- ment of Energy (DOE) has requested and funded these studies over the years since the end of the Cold War. This specific study was directed at supporting the planning that is taking place within DOE’s Office of Envi- ronmental Management to address some of the more challenging technical issues that are facing the cleanup task, which is expected to continue for some 30 years. In a study such as this, the cooperation of those directly involved in the study as well as supporting agencies is paramount. The study com- mittee found this cooperation to be outstanding. Mark Gilbertson, DOE Deputy Assistant Secretary for Engineering and Technology, and our pri- mary customer for this study, found time in his busy schedule to attend our information-gathering meetings, and he was available for presentations and discussion at these meetings, as well as in follow-up contacts with the National Academies’ staff. Beyond that, the DOE and DOE contractor contacts at each of the sites were exemplary in providing the information the committee requested. If this report lacks certain details, it is an oversight by the committee in not requesting such information. The study and report content were strongly aided and abetted by exper- tise at the National Academies in the persons of Kevin Crowley and John Wiley. Both have had extensive experience in leading studies specifically in this field of waste cleanup, and also in related fields. Their input relative to pertinent background material, reports, and contacts was invaluable. vii

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viii PREFACE Finally, John Wiley is especially recognized for his broad skills as a Senior Program Officer at the National Academies for doing all that is expected of a program director, from structuring meetings, arranging for presentations to the committee, arranging site visits, and steering the committee to see the right things on these visits to providing a writing capability in what he prefers to refer to as “diddling” and “mangling,” that has made this report not only reflect the committee’s observations, findings, and recommenda- tions, but doing so in clear and understandable fashion. The committee owes John a debt of gratitude for his support and commitment throughout this study. Backing up Kevin Crowley and John Wiley at the National Academies are administrative assistants who should be recognized for their contribu- tions in supporting the committee in a variety of ways from travel arrange- ments, website portal support, reference reports, telephone conferences, formatting reports and, despite the “paperless society” of today, spending endless time at the copying machine to provide materials for meetings. Our grateful thanks to Mandi Boykin, who supported this committee through most of its study and meetings; Toni Greenleaf, who monitored our budget and provided helpful backup support for Mandi; and Shaunteé Whetstone, who helped us in the final stages of producing this report. On a personal note, the Chair would like to thank Vice Chairman Allen Croff whose expertise in many elements of this study are based not only on his career at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and as an advisor to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission but also his service on many National Academies committees. Allen has provided wise counsel in the course of this study and, in a couple of critical meetings that the Chair was not able to attend, stepped in to effectively conduct the proceedings. Edwin Przybylowicz, Chair Allen Croff, Vice Chair

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Reviewer Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confiden- tial to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Rudolph Bonaparte, Geosyntec Consultants, Atlanta, Georgia Ken Czerwinski, University of Nevada, Las Vegas Harry Harmon, Consultant, Aiken, South Carolina Paul Locke, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland Bruce Moyer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Walter Robb, Vantage Management, Inc., Schenectady, New York Ray Wymer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (retired), Oak Ridge, Tennessee John Zachara, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the report’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the ix

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x REVIEWER ACKNOWLEDGMENTS report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Chris G. Whipple, ENVIRON International Corporation. Appointed by the Divi- sion on Earth and Life Sciences, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council.

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Contents OVERVIEW 1 SUMMARY 3 1 INTRODUCTION 13 2 PRINCIPAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GAPS 21 3 ExPERTISE AND INFRASTRUCTURE 81 4 LEVERAGING R&D FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 95 5 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 117 REFERENCES 137 ACRONYMS 145 APPENDIxES A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 151 B PRESENTATIONS TO THE COMMITTEE C TECHNOLOGY NEEDS MATRIx D HANFORD RESERVATION E IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY F OAK RIDGE RESERVATION G SAVANNAH RIVER SITE H INTERIM REPORT xi

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