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Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Impacts C Panel Members’ Biographical Sketches Michael P. Ramage (Chair) is retired executive vice president of ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company. Previously, he was executive vice president, chief technology officer, and director of Mobil Oil Corporation. Dr. Ramage held a number of positions at Mobil, including research associate, manager of process research and development, general manager of exploration and producing research and technical service, vice president of engineering, and president of Mobil Technology Company. He has broad experience in many aspects of the petroleum and chemical industries. He has served on a number of university visiting committees and was a member of the Government University Industry Research Roundtable. He was a director of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Dr. Ramage chaired the recent National Research Council group that produced the report The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and has served on the NAE Council. G. David Tilman (Vice Chair) is Regents’ Professor and McKnight Presidential Chair in Ecology at the University of Minnesota. His research explores how to meet human needs for energy, food, and ecosystem services sustainably. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, is a J.S. Guggenheim Fellow, and is a recipient of the Ecological Society of America’s Cooper Award and its MacArthur Award, the Botanical Society of America’s Centennial Award, and the Princeton Environmental Prize. He has written two books, edited three more, and published more than 200 scientific papers, including more than 30 in Science, Nature, and the Proceedings of
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Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Impacts the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. For the last 18 years, the Institute for Scientific Information has ranked him as the world’s most-cited environmental scientist. In 2008, the emperor of Japan presented him with the International Prize for Biology. David Gray is director of energy systems analysis at Noblis (formerly Mitretek Systems), a nonprofit consulting company. His expertise is in coal and natural-gas conversion to liquid fuels, heavy-oil and bitumen upgrading technologies, waste-to-energy conversion systems, and greenhouse gas emission and reduction analysis. Previously, he worked as a research manager at the Fuel Research Institute in South Africa on coal-to-liquid transportation-fuels production processes. Robert D. Hall is retired general manager of Amoco Corporation. He has extensive experience in alternative-fuels R&D, in strategic planning, in R&D management, and in technology innovation. Mr. Hall held a number of positions at Amoco Corporation, including general manager of alternative-fuels development, manager of management systems and planning, director of the Amoco Oil Company R&D Department, director of the Amoco Oil Company Design and Economics Division, and supervisor of the Amoco Chemical Company Process Design and Economic Division. He has served on several National Research Council committees, including the Committee on Production Technologies for Liquid Transportation Fuels, the Committee on Strategic Assessment of the Department of Energy’s Coal Program, the Committee to Review the R&D Strategy for Biomass-Derived Ethanol and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels, and the Committee on Benefits of DOE R&D on Efficiency and Fossil Energy. Mr. Hall is a past chairman of the International Council on Alternate Fuels. Edward A. Hiler retired as the holder of the Ellison Chair in International Floriculture of Texas A&M University. He headed the Texas A&M University System Agriculture Program, which encompasses the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, the Texas Cooperative Extension, the Texas Forest Service, the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, and agricultural colleges at five system universities. He also served as dean of agriculture and life sciences at Texas A&M University, was head of the Department of Agricultural Engineering, and was deputy chancellor for academic and research programs and interim chancellor for the Texas A&M University System. His primary technical interests are in soil and water conservation engineering, small-watershed hydrology, irrigation and drain-
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Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Impacts age engineering, and soil-plant-water-atmosphere relations in connection with irrigation management. He has been especially interested in plant response to water, nutrient, and oxygen deficits, in particular as they differ at various stages of plant growth and as they are related to irrigation and drainage management systems for minimizing these deficits. Other interests have included alternative energy sources with emphasis on biomass energy and the associated biochemical and microbiological energy-conversion processes. His career accomplishments have earned numerous honors and awards, including membership in the National Academy of Engineering, designation as a Distinguished Alumnus of Ohio State University, and presidency of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) in 1991–1992 and the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists in 1999. He received the Texas A&M Faculty Distinguished Achievement Award in 1973, the ASAE Young Researcher Award in 1977, and the John Deere Gold Medal in 1991. He has served as a consultant to the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment and the U.S. Department of the Interior Office of Water Research and Technology. He serves on the board of CNH Global, the world’s largest manufacturer of agricultural equipment. W.S. Winston Ho is a university scholar professor in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Ohio State University. His research interests include molecular-based membrane separations, fuel-cell fuel processing and membranes, transport phenomena in membranes, and separations based on chemical reactions. In 2006, he was the recipient of the Institute Award for Excellence in Industrial Gases Technology from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Dr. Ho is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Douglas L. Karlen is a supervisory research soil scientist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and research leader in the Soil and Water Quality Research Unit of the USDA-ARS National Soil Tilth Laboratory. He is also professor in the Department of Agronomy at Iowa State University (ISU), mentor for the Graduate Program on Sustainability at ISU, and associate professor in the Department of Entomology, Soils, and Plant Sciences at Clemson University. Dr. Karlen is leading a project on sustainable agriculture and resource management and conservation and on the effects of growing crops for biofuels and bioenergy. His soil and crop management research program uses a systems approach involving producers, action agencies, nongovernment organizations, agribusiness, and other state and federal research partners to quantify
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Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Impacts the physical, chemical, and biological effects of conventional and organic farming practices. Effects of tillage, crop rotation, nutrient management, and other decision-based factors are evaluated by determining how they affect soil quality, crop productivity, plant-nutrient availability, and nutrient or soil losses in various soil types and landscape positions. Dr. Karlen has conducted a number of studies of the effects of agricultural systems and practices on nutrient loadings, biogeochemical cycles, soil and water quality, and crop production and costs. He received an MS in soil science from Michigan State University and a PhD in agronomy from Kansas State University. James R. Katzer is an energy consultant and an affiliate professor in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering of Iowa State University who recently has been a visiting scholar at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory for Energy and the Environment and executive director of MIT’s “The Future of Coal” study. He was manager of strategic planning and program analysis for the ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company. Before that, he was vice president of technology for the Mobil Oil Corporation with primary responsibilities of ensuring Mobil’s overall technical health, developing forward-looking technology scenarios, and identifying and analyzing technology and environmental developments and trends. He joined the Central Research Laboratory of the Mobil Oil Corporation in 1981 and later became manager of process research and technical service and vice president of planning and finance for the Mobil Research and Development Corporation. Before joining Mobil, he was a professor in the chemical engineering faculty at the University of Delaware and the first director of the Center for Catalytic Science and Technology. Dr. Katzer has more than 80 publications in technical journals, holds several patents, and is a coauthor or editor of several books. Dr. Katzer is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Michael R. Ladisch is the director of the Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering and Distinguished Professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering and Biomedical Engineering at Purdue University and the chief technology officer of Mascoma Corporation. His expertise is in bioseparations, bionanotechnology bioprocess engineering, and bioenergy. His research has resulted in systematic approaches and correlations for scaling up chromatographic purification techniques from the laboratory to process-scale manufacturing systems. His work has resulted in 150 publications, a textbook on bioseparations, 14 patents, and more
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Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Impacts than 100 papers presented at national professional society meetings. He has served as a member of U.S. delegations and advisory panels to Russia, Thailand, China, and Japan to review the status of biotechnology programs. He has also chaired several National Research Council committees concerning biotechnology. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He is a cofounder of Biovitesse, a startup company in pathogen detection. He serves on the scientific board of Agrivida and is a cofounder of Celsys, Inc. Both companies address technology in cellulose ethanol. John A. Miranowski is professor of economics and director of the Institute of Science and Society at Iowa State University (ISU). Dr. Miranowski’s current research is focused on economics of renewable energy and carbon policy, and he has published broadly on the economics of natural resources and environmental issues, including producer and consumer response to higher energy prices, corn and cellulosic biofuel economics, energy efficiency in agriculture, and resource conservation policy and sustainability. He previously served as chair of the Department of Economics at ISU, director of the Resources and Technology Division of the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), executive coordinator of the USDA Policy Coordination Council, and special assistant to the deputy secretary of agriculture. Dr. Miranowski also headed the U.S delegation to the Organisation for Economic Co-ordination and Development Joint Working Party on Agriculture and Environment and served as director on the Board of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists and on the Board of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association. Dr. Miranowski served as a member of the National Research Council Committee on Impact of Emerging Agricultural Trends on Fish and Wildlife Habitat and a panel member of the Committee on Opportunities in Agriculture. He received the USDA Distinguished Service Honor Award for Biofuels Program Development in 1993. He earned a BS in agricultural business from ISU and an AM and a PhD in economics from Harvard University. Michael Oppenheimer is the Albert G. Milbank Professor of Geosciences and International Affairs in the Woodrow Wilson School and the Department of Geosciences at Princeton University. He is also the director of the program in science, technology, and environmental policy at the Woodrow Wilson School and faculty associate of the Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences Program and the Center of International Studies. Dr. Oppenheimer’s interests include science and policy
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Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Impacts related to the atmosphere, particularly climate change and its effects. His research explores the potential effects of global warming, including the effects of warming on atmospheric chemistry, on ecosystems and the nitrogen cycle, on ocean circulation, and on the ice sheets in the context of defining “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the climate system. Dr. Oppenheimer joined the Princeton faculty after more than 2 decades with Environmental Defense, a nongovernment environmental organization, where he served as chief scientist and manager of the Global and Regional Atmosphere Program. Recently, Dr. Oppenheimer served as a lead author of the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Dr. Oppenheimer was a member the National Research Council Panel on Climate Variability and Change. He received an SB in chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a PhD in chemical physics from the University of Chicago. Ronald F. Probstein is Ford Professor of Engineering emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interests are in physicochemical hydrodynamics, fluid mechanics, synthetic fuels, and environmental-control technology. He was named a Guggenheim Fellow and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). He was the recipient of the Freeman Award in Fluids Engineering of ASME and holds an honorary doctorate from Brown University. In addition to his research in synthetic fuels, largely in coal conversion and associated water-use minimization, he published Synthetic Fuels, which was reprinted by Dover Publications in 2006, and the research monograph Water in Synthetic Fuel Production (MIT Press, 1978). He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences. Harold H. Schobert is a professor of fuel science in the Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering at Pennsylvania State University. He also has a visiting appointment as extraordinary professor of natural sciences at North-West University in South Africa. He has published more than 100 peer-reviewed papers in coal chemistry, carbon and graphite, novel reactions in petroleum refining, and carbon dioxide capture. He has been the leader of Pennsylvania State University’s coal-to-jet fuel program, which has developed a coal-based replacement for conventional
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Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Impacts jet fuels. Dr. Schobert was a member of the Energy Engineering Board at the National Research Council from 1990 to 1996. Christopher R. Somerville is the director of the Energy BioSciences Institute in Berkeley, California. He oversees all activities at the institute, including research, communication, education, and outreach. He also chairs the institute’s Executive Committee. Dr. Somerville is a professor in the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology at the University of California, Berkeley, and a visiting scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. His research focuses on the characterization of proteins implicated in plant cell-wall synthesis and modification. He has published more than 200 scientific papers in plant and microbial genetics, genomics, biochemistry, and biotechnology. Dr. Somerville has served on the scientific advisory boards of many corporations, academic institutions, and private foundations in Europe and North America. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Society of London, and the Royal Society of Canada. Gregory Stephanopoulos is Willard Dow Professor of Biotechnology and Chemical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The central focus of his research is metabolic engineering, the improvement of cellular properties using modern genetic tools with attention to industrial applications, and biomedical research aimed at the elucidation of key physiological differences that characterize disease states and can guide drug and therapy development. He has received numerous awards, including the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Wilhelm Award in Chemical Reaction Engineering (2001), the Marvin Johnson Award of the Biotechnology Division of the American Chemical Society (2000), the AIChE Food, Pharmaceutical & Bioengineering Division Award (1997), and the Technical Achievement Award of the AIChe Southern California section (1984). Dr. Stephanopoulos is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received a PhD in chemical engineering from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. James L. Sweeney is the director of the Precourt Institute for Energy Efficiency and former chairman of the Department of Engineering–Economic Systems and Operations Research of Stanford University. He has been a consultant, director of the Office of Energy Systems, director of the Office of Quantitative Methods, and director of the Office of Energy Systems Modeling and Forecasting of the Federal Energy Administration. At Stanford University, he has been chairman
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Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass: Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Impacts of the Institute of Energy Studies, director of the Center for Economic Policy Research, and director of the Energy Modeling Forum. He has served on several National Research Council committees, including the Committee on the National Energy Modeling System and the Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change. He also served on the Committee on Benefits of DOE’s R&D on Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy, helping to develop the framework and method that the committee applied to evaluating benefits. His research and writings address economic and policy issues important for natural-resource production and use; energy markets, including those in oil, natural gas, and electricity; environmental protection; and the use of mathematical models to analyze energy markets. He has a BS from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a PhD in engineering-economic systems from Stanford University.