Diversity in the Engineering Workforce (1999-2004). More recently, he served as a member of the military advisory board for the 2008 Center for Naval Analyses Corporation report entitled National Security and the Threat of Climate Change.


Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., Co-Chair, is director of the Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center and Professor in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science at the University of Maryland, College Park. His research interests include tropical ocean circulation and its role in the coupled climate system, and climate variability and predictability. Dr. Busalacchi has been involved in the activities of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) for many years and currently is chair of the Joint Scientific Committee that oversees the WCRP. He previously was co-chair of the scientific steering group for its subprogram on Climate Variability and Predictability. Dr. Busalacchi has participated extensively in National Research Council (NRC) activities, including as chair of the Climate Research Committee and the Committee on a Strategy to Mitigate the Impact of Sensor Descopes and Demanifests on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Spacecraft, and as a member of the Committee on Earth Studies, the Panel on the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Program, and the Panel on Ocean Atmosphere Observations Supporting Short-Term Climate Predictions. Dr. Busalacchi currently serves as chair of the NRC Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate and as a member of the NRC Committee on America’s Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change.


Arthur B. Baggeroer (NAE) is Ford Professor of Engineering and the Secretary of the Navy/Chief of Naval Operations Chair for Ocean Science in the Departments of Ocean and Electrical Engineering at MIT. His areas of expertise include advanced signal processing methods applied to sonar, ocean acoustics, and geophysics. Dr. Baggeroer has served as director of the MIT–Woods Hole Joint Program in Oceanography and Oceanographic Engineering. During sabbatical leaves he has also served as a consultant to the Chief of Naval Research at the NATO Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic Center in La Spezia, Italy, and as a Green Scholar at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. He is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Acoustical Society of America. Dr. Baggeroer recently served as co-chair of the NRC Committee on Distributed Remote Sensing for Naval Undersea Warfare. He is a former member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board and Ocean Studies Board.


Cecilia M. Bitz is an assistant professor in the Atmospheric Sciences Department at the University of Washington. Her research interests include climate dynamics, climate change, paleoclimate, the role of sea ice in the climate system, Arctic/North Atlantic interactions, and sea-ice model development. The primary tools for her research are a variety of models, from simple reduced models to sophisti-



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