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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by: Contract/Grant No. DE-AT01-06NA26358, TO #28, between the Department of Energy and the National Academy of Sciences; and SB134106Z0011, TO #4, between the Technology Innovation Program of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Academy of Sciences. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST). This report was prepared by the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council under award number 99-06-07543-02 from the Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. The statements, findings, conclusions, and recommendations are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Economic Development Administration or the U.S. Department of Commerce. Additional funding was provided by The Heinz Endowments, Acciona Energy, Dow Corning Corporation, IBM, SkyFuel Inc., and the Association of University Research Parks. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

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