Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
The Potential Consequences of Public Release of Food Safety and Inspection Service Establishment-Specific Data Committee on a Study of Food Safety and Other Consequences of Publishing Establishment-Specific Data Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Award AG-3A94-C-08-0018 Task Order 9/AG-3A94-D- 10-0255 0255 between the National Academy of Sciences and the US Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-22465-9 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-22465-9 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1
.

OCR for page R1
COMMITTEE ON A STUDY OF FOOD SAFETY AND OTHER CONSEQUENCES OF PUBLISHING ESTABLISHMENT-SPECIFIC DATA LEE-ANN JAYKUS, Chair, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina JULIE A. CASWELL, University of Massachusetts Amherst JAMES S. DICKSON, Iowa State University, Ames JOHN R. DUNN, Tennessee Department of Health, Nashville STEPHEN E. FIENBERG, NAS, 1 Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania WILLIAM K. HALLMAN, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick GINGER ZHE JIN, University of Maryland, College Park GALE PRINCE, Sage Food Safety Consultants, LLC, Cincinnati, Ohio DONALD W. SCHAFFNER, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick KATHLEEN SEGERSON, University of Connecticut, Storrs CHRISTOPHER A. WALDROP, Consumer Federation of America, Washington, DC DAVID WEIL, Boston University, Massachusetts Staff CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Study Director MARIA ORIA, Study Director KATHLEEN REIMER, Senior Program Assistant NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Senior Editor 1 National Academy of Sciences v

OCR for page R1
BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES NORMAN R. SCOTT, Chair, NAE,1 Cornell University, Ithaca, New York PEGGY F. BARLETT, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia HAROLD L. BERGMAN, University of Wyoming, Laramie RICHARD A. DIXON, NAS,2 Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, Oklahoma DANIEL M. DOOLEY, University of California, Oakland JOAN H. EISEMANN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh GARY F. HARTNELL, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri GENE HUGOSON, Global Initiatives for Food Systems Leadership, St. Paul, Minnesota MOLLY M. JAHN, University of Wisconsin-Madison ROBBIN S. JOHNSON, Cargill Foundation, Wayzata, Minnesota A.G. KAWAMURA, Solutions from the Land, Washington, DC JULIA L. KORNEGAY, North Carolina State University, Raleigh KIRK C. KLASING, University of California, Davis VICTOR L. LECHTENBERG, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana JUNE BOWMAN NASRALLAH, NAS,2 Cornell University, Ithaca, New York PHILIP E. NELSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana KEITH PITTS, Marrone Bio Innovations, Davis, California CHARLES W. RICE, Kansas State University, Manhattan HAL SALWASSER, Oregon State University, Corvallis ROGER A. SEDJO, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC KATHLEEN SEGERSON, University of Connecticut, Storrs MERCEDES VAZQUEZ-AÑON, Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, Missouri Staff ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Program Officer RUTH S. ARIETI, Research Associate KAREN L. IMHOF, Administrative Coordinator KARA N. LANEY, Program Officer AUSTIN J. LEWIS, Senior Program Officer JANET M. MULLIGAN, Senior Program Associate for Research KATHLEEN REIMER, Senior Program Assistant EVONNE P.Y. TANG, Senior Program Officer PEGGY TSAI, Program Officer 1 National Academy of Engineering 2 National Academy of Sciences vi

OCR for page R1
Preface Public release of establishment-specific data is not a new concept for some federal and state regulatory agencies, but it is new to the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Hence, FSIS will need to consider many issues, and it is our hope that this report will be of value as the agency pursues public data release in a manner that promotes transparency and ultimately results in improvements in public health. We suspect that our conclusions will also be relevant to other food-safety agencies as they move down the path of increasing stakeholder engagement through formal data-release programs. I would like to thank the committee members, whose diverse expertise made for thought- provoking discussion. Their commitment to listening to the views of others and drafting a document that was both comprehensive and universally accepted is greatly appreciated. I would also like to thank FSIS personnel, who kept in contact with the committee over the course of deliberations, providing both formal and informal input regarding the structure of their current data systems and their vision for the future, which includes release of establishment-specific data. Likewise, representatives of the meat and poultry industry provided honest discussion with respect to their concerns and suggestions for future public data release. Thanks also to the staff of the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources and the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academies, especially to study directors Camilla Ables and Maria Oria, for keeping the committee on task and coordinating deliberations and document review. Special thanks to Kati Reimer, who planned the meetings and facilitated communications, always with enthusiasm and a smile. Finally, I thank Robin Schoen, whose insights on study protocol helped us to produce a relevant consensus document. In short, whereas the committee provided the brain power, the staff was able to make that into something of value to the scientific and regulatory food-safety community at large. For that, I am deeply grateful.   Lee-Ann Jaykus, PhD, Chair Committee on a Study of Food Safety and Other Consequences of Publishing Establishment-Specific Data vii

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council Report Review Committee. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following for their review of the report: Gina R. Bellinger, Food Safety Net Services Dane Bernard, Keystone Foods, LLC Jerry Bowman, Institute of Food Technologists Christine Bruhn, University of California, Davis James Hamilton, Duke University Neal H. Hooker, St. Joseph’s University Ian Jenson, Meat & Livestock Australia William Keene, Oregon Public Health Division Barbara Masters, OFW Law Greg Paoli, Risk Sciences International John R. Ruby, JBS USA, LLC Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Robert Gravani, Cornell University, and Elaine Larson, Columbia University. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests with the author committee and the institution. ix

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Abbreviations and Acronyms AERS Adverse Event Reporting System AMS Agricultural Marketing Service CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CSPI Center for Science in the Public Interest CSV comma-separated values ECHO Enforcement and Compliance History Online EPA Environmental Protection Agency FDA Food and Drug Administration FOIA Freedom of Information Act FOOD Foodborne Outbreak Online Database FoodNet Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network FSA Food Safety Assessment FSIS Food Safety and Inspection Service HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point HTML hyper text markup language IDEA Integrated Data for Enforcement Analysis IICs inspectors-in-charge IOM Institute of Medicine LADPH Los Angeles Department of Public Health MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration NACMPI National Advisory Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection NIH National Institutes of Health NR noncompliance record OMB Office of Management and Budget OPEER Office of Program Evaluation, Enforcement and Review OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PDF portable document format PDP Pesticide Data Program PHIS Public Health Information System PR Pathogen Reduction RFR Reportable Food Registry RTE ready-to-eat TRI Toxic Release Inventory USDA US Department of Agriculture XML extensible markup language xi

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Contents SUMMARY 1 BACKGROUND 5 1 The Food Safety and Inspection Service Regulatory Framework, 5 Statement of Task, 7 Study Rationale, 8 The Committee’s Approach, 9 References, 11 TRANSPARENCY AND FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE 2 DATA-SHARING 13 Transparency and Disclosure of Data , 13 Types of Data Collected by the Food Safety and Inspection Service, 17 Uses and Users of Food Safety and Inspection Service Data and Data Sharing Efforts, 20 The Role of the Food Safety and Inspection Service Public Health Information System, 21 References, 34 EXPERIENCE WITH PUBLIC POSTING OF GOVERNMENT DATA 35 3 Introduction, 35 Examples of Collection and Release of Data by Regulatory Agencies, 37 Reporting of Food-Safety Data by Nonregulatory Agencies, 41 Reported Effects of Releasing Establishment-Specific Data, 43 Summary, 47 References, 47 PUBLIC RELEASE OF FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE 4 ESTABLISHMENT-SPECIFIC DATA 53 Possible Benefits, Costs and Unintended Adverse Consequences, 54 Strategic Planning of Data Release, 57 Considerations for Release of Food Safety and Inspection Service Establishment-Specific Data, 60 Measuring the Potential Effects of the Release of Food Safety and Inspection Service Establishment-Specific Data, 64 xiii

OCR for page R1
Major Findings and Conclusions, 65 References, 68 APPENDIXES A Committee Member Biographies, 71 B Office of Management and Budget Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, 77 C FSIS Tables, 89 xiv

OCR for page R1
List of Tables, Figures, and Boxes TABLES 2-1 FSIS Analytical (Sampling and Testing) Data that are Under Consideration for Establishment-Specific Release, 23 2-2 FSIS Enforcement Data that are Under Consideration for Establishment-Specific Release, 27 2-3 Example of Establishment-Specific E. coli O157:H7 Data under Consideration for Public Posting by FSIS, 28 2-4 Example of Establishment-Specific Salmonella Data under Consideration for Public Posting by FSIS, 30 FIGURES 1-1 Diagram of the FSIS Regulatory Framework, 7 2-1 Transparency Action Cycle, 17 BOXES S-1 Statement of Task, 1 2-1 Types of Information that Cannot be Released through the Freedom of Information Act, 15 2-2 FSIS Pathogen Sampling and Testing Programs, 19 3-1 Examples of Safety Related Data on the Internet, 36 xv

OCR for page R1