with the rank of Captain. He served at sea in command of four Coast Guard cutters including a patrol boat, Great Lakes icebreaker, offshore law enforcement cutter, and the polar icebreaker Polar Sea sailing in Alaskan, Arctic, and Antarctic waters; he also served as chief of strategic planning in Washington, D.C. Dr. Brigham has been a research fellow at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, a faculty member of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy and the Naval Postgraduate School, and deputy director of the U.S. Arctic Research Commission. He is a graduate of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy (B.S.), a distinguished graduate of the U.S. Naval War College, and holds graduate degrees from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (M.S.) and the University of Cambridge (M.Phil. and Ph.D.). His research interests include Arctic marine transportation, remote sensing of sea ice, Arctic climate change, and polar marine policy.

Jennifer A. Francis is a research professor at the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences and the Graduate Program in Atmospheric Sciences at Rutgers University. She studies the Arctic climate system, causes for rapid change, and linkages between the Arctic and the global climate system. Her work is funded primarily by the National Science Foundation. She has served on several national committees in the National Science Foundation, the American Meteorological Society, and the science steering committee for the Study of Arctic Environmental Change (SEARCH). Dr. Francis received her Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from the University of Washington in 1994. Dr. Francis is currently a member of the Polar Research Board.

Marika Holland is a an ice specialist in the Oceanography section of the Climate and Global Dynamics division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). She received her Ph.D. in 1997 from the Program in Atmosphere and Ocean Sciences at the University of Colorado in the area of sea ice modeling for climate applications. Her training continued with a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Victoria in British Columbia, studying the influence of sea ice variability and change on the global ocean circulation and climate. In 1999, Dr. Holland moved to NCAR in Boulder, Colorado, as a postdoctoral fellow and joined the scientific staff in 2000. Her research interests include polar climate variability and future change, including the role of ice-ocean-atmosphere interactions and feedbacks. She has extensive experience using coupled climate models to study these issues and has been active in the development of improved sea ice models for climate simulations. She is currently serving as chief scientist for the Community Earth System Modeling Project.

Son V. Nghiem is the Science Applications Development lead of the Radar Science and Engineering Section, and the Hydrology Discipline program manager of the Hydrology Office in the Earth Science and Technology Directorate at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology. His research encompasses active and passive remote sensing, advanced satellite radars and radiometers, electromagnetic scattering and emission, and earth sciences and applications. He has published 70 peer-reviewed articles and over 230 conference articles. He received the 1999 Lew Allen Award for Excellence in recognition of his pioneering research in the areas of polarimetric scatterometry for earth science remote sensing and contributions to future advanced satellite instrument concepts; the 2006 NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal for developing scientific applications of scatterometry in land, ice, and snow processes;



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