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20 buses and maintenance facilities and the health and safety of threat status is elevated to an "Orange" or "Red" level, for employees. It is the agency's responsibility to understand and example, FTA requires agencies to "lock down" their facil- comply with applicable regulations when developing main- ity by having full perimeter fencing, and gates and the abil- tenance practices. Failure to comply can result in fines and ity to check each person and vehicle entering. penalties. The Model Transit Bus Safety and Security Program also This section provides a broad overview of applicable regu- recognizes that proper maintenance of vehicles is critical to lations and offers recommendations to help agencies develop the safe operation of a transit system and requires agencies practices that promote compliance. Because the regulations are to establish vehicle maintenance practices to regularly extensive and vary between local jurisdictions, this section can- address safety-related vehicle equipment, including: not possibly address all of them. Consult with the agency's attorney and/or safety officer, if available, to make certain that Service and parking brakes; your practices are consistent with all applicable requirements. Tires, wheels, and rims; If legal or safety assistance is not available, a contact list of Steering mechanism; major regulatory agencies is provided at the end of this section Vehicle suspension; to help you get the needed information. Mirrors; Lighting and reflectors; and Wheelchair lifts. FTA PROGRAMS AND REQUIREMENTS Triennial Review Suggestion: Develop a practice with instructions for responding to elevated threat levels. The practice should include procedures for contacting key maintenance employ- FTA conducts a comprehensive audit called a Triennial ees with a listing of those responsible for securing facilities, Review every 3 years for all FTA grantees. An audit team staffing points of entry, and coordinating with law enforce- from FTA inspects buses, facilities, and related maintenance ment officials. In addition, develop safety-related equipment records to verify compliance. Affected agencies are required practices that are consistent with FTA's Model Transit Bus to provide material from major departments, such as finance, Safety and Security Program requirements. The FTA website listed at the end of this section contains current information purchasing, human resources, operations, and maintenance. needed to address these requirements. The material below highlights some of the Triennial Review requirements that could be satisfied by having documented maintenance practices. FEDERAL REQUIREMENTS As part of its review, FTA requires each agency's mainte- nance department to have a written maintenance plan for all The federal regulations summarized below address bus buses and facilities and to keep records in hard-copy or manufacturing, maintenance, facilities, human safety, and electronic format to document that the plan is being fol- environmental protection. lowed. For example, if an agency's program calls for PMIs to be performed at 6,000-mile intervals, work orders or other THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT documents must substantiate that the PMIs were performed as OF TRANSPORTATION (USDOT) specified. Additionally, since FTA requires maintenance plans to be current, agencies need to prove that PMI checklists and Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) other practices reflect the manufacturer's requirements for new vehicles added to the fleet. FTA's Triennial Audit Team looks USDOT regulates many facets of transportation. The closely at all agency procedures and documentation, and material below summarizes regulations contained under the failure to comply could range from a simple notice for an CFR as published in the Federal Register. Agencies are urged infraction to citations, fines, or loss of FTA funding. to become familiar with, and have access to, these regula- tions when developing practices. Contact information is Suggestion: Develop individual practices for PMIs and repair tasks because they are essential for complying with provided at the end of this section. FTA Triennial Review requirements in that they provide documentation showing that a maintenance program exists and is being followed for specific buses and equipment. CFR--Best Practices Requirements Model Transit Bus Safety and Security Program CFR 49 Part 393 pertains to bus construction and manu- facturing and affects practices regarding bus specifications Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and equipment. Some of the areas covered by Part 393 FTA promulgated regulations under the Model Transit Bus include requirements for bus batteries and wiring, lighting, Safety and Security Program requiring agencies to enhance brake systems, windshield wipers and washers, exhaust security at transit centers and operating facilities. When the systems, heaters and defrosters, driveshaft protection, tires,