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30 provides clear, straightforward instructions for correct To use pictures effectively: grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Get It Write Tips at Use pictures to help readers understand the text or per- archive/tips.htm provides an archive of grammar tips form an instruction correctly. provided by a private writing consultant. Use pictures only when necessary. Not every step in Study Guides and Strategies at the practice, especially basic ones such as "open engine spelling.htm provides basic spelling rules, including a access doors," require pictures. Pictures for such basic list of commonly misspelled words, and links to online steps will only clutter the practice. dictionaries. Use pictures that exactly depict your maintenance situ- ation or equipment. Place pictures close to the corresponding text descrip- Books tion. (Note: the Word template will do this for you). Add arrows and labels to point out a specific piece of Ask an associate at your local library or bookstore for equipment or procedure shown in the picture. books that provide brief, basic advice for writing effectively. Trim (i.e., crop) photos to focus on a specific piece of equipment or procedure. USING PHOTOGRAPHS AND GRAPHICS Use color images only if color makes the image clearer. Do not use unfocused or confusing pictures. Overview Acquiring Electronic Picture Files This section describes how to add photographs and graphics (referred to here as "pictures") to your mainte- Obtain pictures from the Internet or from reference material nance practices. The information assumes that a computer only if you are sure you are not infringing on a copyright. (See will be used. Those without a computer will need to take Chapter 2, Part 1, and Appendix A, Legal Considerations.) photocopies of pictures and paste them into the document. To download pictures from the Internet: This section also assumes that MS Word will be used, although other word processing software programs have 1. Right click on the image. similar capabilities. Different versions of Word may 2. Select "Save Image As." handle pictures in slightly different ways from those 3. Give the file a meaningful name; retain the file exten- described here. Remember to read the Legal Considera- sion (e.g., jpg). tions section of Chapter 2 and Appendix A before using 4. Browse the directories on your computer for the correct pictures other than your own. directory in which to save the file; click "Save." Like so many computer applications, adding pictures will take some getting used to for those trying it for the first time. While this section is by no means a definitive guide, it contains Storing Files enough information to get you started. You will need to experiment with pictures and possibly seek additional guid- To develop and follow a system for naming and storing ance from other sources or people more familiar with pictures on your computer: the process. For those using the Word template, space is provided to insert pictures next to each job instruction where Give files meaningful names; include the extension. For appropriate. example: insert_brake_pads_10 x 12mm.jpg. Basic rules of thumb are as follows: Store all picture files in one directory, or store all pic- tures for a specific maintenance practice in a directory Review the information provided in Table 3-1. with the appropriate Word file. Manipulate photos (e.g., crop and adjust the file size) before inserting them into the practice. Inserting Pictures into a Word File Insert pictures into your Word file after you have fin- ished writing the text. To insert pictures into a Word file: If you are going to print your maintenance practices, use pictures with high enough resolution to print 1. Click on where you want to insert the picture. clearly. 2. From the toolbar, go to "Insert," then "Picture," then Be prepared to experiment. Funny things can happen "From File." with pictures in electronic documents. 3. Locate the picture you want to insert. (Browse your Use manuals with pictures that you find to be particu- directories.) larly helpful as a template for your own work. 4. Double-click the picture you want to insert.

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31 TABLE 3-1 Making sense of picture jargon Term Definition Why It's Important Picture file type File type, or format, is determined by the way You can insert the following picture file types into information is stored in a file. Word documents: Graphics Interchange Format (.gif) (usually low- File type is indicated by the file name extension resolution; small file size) (e.g., .tif). Joint Photographic Experts Group (.jpg) (usually low-resolution; small file size) Tagged Image File Format (.tif or .tiff) (usually high- resolution; large file size) Microsoft Windows Bitmap (.bmp) Windows Metafile Graphics (.wmf) Encapsulated PostScript (.eps) (usually high- resolution; medium file size) Portable Network Graphics (.png) Enhanced Metafile (.emf) Raster picture A raster picture is made from thousands of tiny When enlarged in a Word document, raster pictures dots. Scanned pictures and .bmp and .tif files become less sharp, and the dots that make up the are raster. picture may become visible. Vector picture A vector, or drawn, picture is made from lines, When enlarged in a Word document, vector pictures curves, rectangles, and other objects. Word retain their sharpness. AutoShapes and .eps and .wmf files are vector files. File size Electronic file size is expressed in terms of Inserting pictures into Word files increases the Word kilobytes (kb). ("Size" here doesn't refer to file size. The program may react more slowly and print dimensions. It refers to how much space it time may increase. takes up on your computer.) Picture Resolution is the quality of a picture in terms of A picture's resolution affects two things: resolution the number of dots or pixels that make up the Its size (e.g., 300 ppi = 1,373 kb; 72 ppi = 82 kb). picture. Resolution of electronic photo files is Inserting high-resolution pictures will greatly expressed as pixels per inch (ppi). increase the size of a Word file. Its print quality. Minimum picture resolution for sharp printing is generally about 200 ppi. With picture resolution, you have to find a balance between file size and print quality. Files of type .jpg and .gif are typically 72 ppi and may not print sharply. Exception: A low-resolution picture with large dimensions (e.g., 23 12 inches). Reducing the picture's dimensions in Word improves its sharpness. Embedded When you embed a picture, a copy of it Embedded pictures increase Word file size. Still, if you picture becomes part of the Word file. (Embedding is plan to share Word maintenance practices or upload MS Word's default treatment for pictures.) them to the TRB Web Board, you must embed the pictures. Linked picture When you link a picture (instead of embedding Linking pictures helps keep the size of your Word file it), the picture does not become part of the small. However, copies of the Word file that you share Word document. with someone or upload to the TRB Web Board will not include the linked pictures.