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Conclusions 69 vidual to each airport, but the fundamental principle is to enable shorter minimum connection times and capture increased carrier connecting possibilities. Challenges Resilience to Changing Conditions Border facilitation programs such as reducing international baggage recheck require a longer- term view (more than 5 years) to demonstrate the potential for relevance to changing conditions. Airports tend to have a much longer-term view (more than 25 years) for the life cycle of facilities. With changing threats and conditions, any solution must anticipate future needs, whether integration of pandemic planning or responses to other emerging threats to border security. To ensure sustainability, any proposed process must incorporate features to Scale to different risk levels and Expand to different volumes of bags/passengers. The resiliency of alternative processes will ultimately depend on the maturation of risk manage- ment techniques. As CBP has demonstrated through the success of its Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism program, oftentimes good security depends on the full engagement of private sector, traveler, and other stakeholders in the process--in addition to CBP officers themselves. International Standards The study team found numerous cases of baggage recheck elimination worldwide. While the practice is prevalent in Europe and new technologies are being tested between Australia and New Zealand (i.e., X-ray image sharing for the purpose of agricultural inspection), an emerg- ing issue is the ability to foster international standards associated with baggage information. The study team noted that 15 percent of the time, SITA found there was no incoming BSM received, to allow airlines to sort baggage effectively. Without fidelity and standards adherence, there are sizable challenges to the ability of international data transmission to assist CBP to risk-manage bags. A Path for Improvement The first step toward an airport improving its connections effectiveness as a hub is to identify opportunities that save time, improve passenger convenience, and/or reduce costs; in this case eliminating the need for baggage recheck. The second step is to find a solution that will provide a net benefit for all stakeholders. For example, while the need for baggage recheck at SFO was recognized as a burden on the connection process, an airline determined that the cost of an alter- native process for international-to-international baggage outweighed the benefits. However, at SEA, it was determined that a similar new process was a worthwhile pilot program to pursue. It is this type of analysis and decision making that is required at each airport. Ultimately, each airport and respective airline(s) must evaluate the incremental costs and benefits associated with an alternative procedure. Based on the airports/airlines that have successfully reduced baggage recheck for international- to-international connections, as well as research with other industry members, the following elements need to be reviewed: Costs: Airports and airline(s) need to collaboratively document the costs associated with bag- gage recheck to establish the need for change from a commercial perspective. They also need