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55 REFERENCES 1. Kaar, P.H., Kriz, L.B., and Hognestad, E. "Precast-Prestressed 14. Ramirez, J.A., Abdalla, O.A., and Lee, R.H. Strand Debonding Concrete Bridges 1: Pilot Tests of Continuous Girders," Jour- in Pretensioned Beams: Precast Prestressed Concrete Bridge nal of the PCA Research and Development Laboratories, Girders with Debonded Strands, Continuity Issues, Joint High- Vol. 2, No. 2, May 1960; pp. 2137. Also reprinted as PCA way Research Project, Indiana DOT/Purdue University, FHWA/ Bulletin D-34. INDOT/JHRP-92-24, June 1993. 2. Hanson, N. W. "Precast-Prestressed Concrete Bridges 2: Hori- 15. AASHTO Standard Specifications for Bridge Design, 16th Edi- zontal Shear Connections," Journal of the PCA Research and tion. American Assoc. of State Highway and Transportation Development Laboratories, Vol. 2, No. 2, May 1960; pp. 3858. Officials; Washington DC; 1996. Also reprinted as PCA Bulletin D-35. 16. Peterman, R.J., and Ramirez, J.A. "Restraint Moments in 3. 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"Precast-Prestressed Concrete Bridges 5: Creep 1993; pp. 3037. and Shrinkage Studies," Journal of the PCA Research and 19. Ma, Z., Huo, X., Tadros, M.K., and Baishya, M. "Restraint Development Laboratories, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 1961; pp. 3266. Moments in Precast/Prestressed Concrete Continuous Bridges," Also reprinted as PCA Bulletin D-46. PCI Journal, Vol. 43, No. 6, November-December 1998; 6. Mattock, A.H., and Kaar, P.H. "Precast-Prestressed Concrete pp. 4056. Bridges 6: Test of Half-Scale Highway Bridge Continuous over 20. "Temperature Gradient Cracks Viaduct Girders," Engineering News Record; May 30, 1994; pp. 1415. Two Spans," Journal of the PCA Research and Development 21. Cracks in Precast Prestressed Bulb Tee Girders on Structure Laboratories, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sept 1961; pp. 3070. Also reprinted Nos. I-565-45-11.5 A. & B. on I-565 in Huntsville, Alabama. as PCA Bulletin D-51. Alabama DOT, September 1994. 7. Freyermuth, C.L. "Design of Continuous Highway Bridges 22. 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Transportation Research Board, National Research 28. Elzanaty, A.H., Nilson, A.H., and Slate, F.O. "Shear Capacity Council; Washington, DC; November 1989. of Prestressed Concrete Beams Using High-Strength Con- 12. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 2nd Edition. crete," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 83, 1986; pp. 359368. American Assoc. of State Highway and Transportation Offi- 29. Kotsovos M.D., Pavlovic, M.N. "Structural Concrete: Finite cials; Washington, DC; 1998. Element Analysis for Limit-State Design," Thomas Telford 13. Salmons, J.R. Behavior of Untensioned-Bonded Prestressing Publication. 1995. Strand. Final Report 77-1, Missouri Cooperative Highway 30. Holombo, J., Priestley, M.J.N., and Seible, F. "Continuity of Research Program, Missouri State Highway Department, Precast Prestressed Spliced-Girder Bridges Under Seismic June 1980. Loads." PCI Journal, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2000; pp. 4063.