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55 REFERENCES 1. Kaar, P.H., Kriz, L.B., and Hognestad, E. "Precast-Prestressed 14. Ramirez, J.A., Abdalla, O.A., and Lee, R.H. Strand Debonding Concrete Bridges 1: Pilot Tests of Continuous Girders," Jour- in Pretensioned Beams: Precast Prestressed Concrete Bridge nal of the PCA Research and Development Laboratories, Girders with Debonded Strands, Continuity Issues, Joint High- Vol. 2, No. 2, May 1960; pp. 2137. Also reprinted as PCA way Research Project, Indiana DOT/Purdue University, FHWA/ Bulletin D-34. INDOT/JHRP-92-24, June 1993. 2. Hanson, N. W. "Precast-Prestressed Concrete Bridges 2: Hori- 15. AASHTO Standard Specifications for Bridge Design, 16th Edi- zontal Shear Connections," Journal of the PCA Research and tion. American Assoc. of State Highway and Transportation Development Laboratories, Vol. 2, No. 2, May 1960; pp. 3858. Officials; Washington DC; 1996. Also reprinted as PCA Bulletin D-35. 16. Peterman, R.J., and Ramirez, J.A. "Restraint Moments in 3. 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"Precast-Prestressed Concrete Bridges 5: Creep 1993; pp. 3037. and Shrinkage Studies," Journal of the PCA Research and 19. Ma, Z., Huo, X., Tadros, M.K., and Baishya, M. "Restraint Development Laboratories, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 1961; pp. 3266. Moments in Precast/Prestressed Concrete Continuous Bridges," Also reprinted as PCA Bulletin D-46. PCI Journal, Vol. 43, No. 6, November-December 1998; 6. Mattock, A.H., and Kaar, P.H. "Precast-Prestressed Concrete pp. 4056. Bridges 6: Test of Half-Scale Highway Bridge Continuous over 20. "Temperature Gradient Cracks Viaduct Girders," Engineering News Record; May 30, 1994; pp. 1415. Two Spans," Journal of the PCA Research and Development 21. Cracks in Precast Prestressed Bulb Tee Girders on Structure Laboratories, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sept 1961; pp. 3070. Also reprinted Nos. I-565-45-11.5 A. & B. on I-565 in Huntsville, Alabama. as PCA Bulletin D-51. Alabama DOT, September 1994. 7. Freyermuth, C.L. "Design of Continuous Highway Bridges 22. Collins, M., Mitchell, D., Felber, A., and Kuchma, D. with Precast, Prestressed Concrete Girders," Journal of the Pre- RESPONSE V 1.0. provided with Prestressed Concrete Struc- stressed Concrete Institute, Vol. 14, No. 2, April 1969; pp. tures. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ; 1991. 1439. Also reprinted as PCA Engineering Bulletin EB014.01E, 23. ACI Committee 209. "Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Tem- August 1969. perature Effects in Concrete Structures," in Designing for Creep 8. Salmons, J.R., and McCrate, T.E. Bond of Untensioned Pre- and Shrinkage in Concrete Structures. Publication SP-76, Amer- stress Strand. Interim Report 73-5A, Missouri Cooperative ican Concrete Institute, 1989; pp. 193300. Highway Research Program, Missouri State Highway Depart- 24. PCI Design Handbook, 5th Edition. Precast/Prestressed Con- ment, August 1973. crete Institute: Chicago, IL; 1999. 9. Salmons, J.R., and May, G.W. Strand Reinforcing for End 25. 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Transportation Research Board, National Research 28. Elzanaty, A.H., Nilson, A.H., and Slate, F.O. "Shear Capacity Council; Washington, DC; November 1989. of Prestressed Concrete Beams Using High-Strength Con- 12. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 2nd Edition. crete," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 83, 1986; pp. 359368. American Assoc. of State Highway and Transportation Offi- 29. Kotsovos M.D., Pavlovic, M.N. "Structural Concrete: Finite cials; Washington, DC; 1998. Element Analysis for Limit-State Design," Thomas Telford 13. Salmons, J.R. Behavior of Untensioned-Bonded Prestressing Publication. 1995. Strand. Final Report 77-1, Missouri Cooperative Highway 30. Holombo, J., Priestley, M.J.N., and Seible, F. "Continuity of Research Program, Missouri State Highway Department, Precast Prestressed Spliced-Girder Bridges Under Seismic June 1980. Loads." PCI Journal, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2000; pp. 4063.