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5 FIGURE 5 Drift pins used to erect a girder (Washington State DOT). FIGURE 7 Special complete structure assembly (Washington State DOT). four is a summary of erector practices and views, chapter five lists problems cited, chapter six discusses the solutions to the problems, and chapter seven presents the conclusions. The appendixes contain all of the questionnaires, responses, sum- maries of the responses, and results of specification reviews. RESPONSES TO QUESTIONNAIRES A total of 111 questionnaires were distributed, with 51 re- sponses received. A slim majority of the owners (32 of 62) responded to the owners' questionnaire. A larger, yet not overwhelming, majority of fabricators (15 of 24) responded to their questionnaire. Only 4 of the 25 erectors/contractors FIGURE 6 Progressive girder assembly. that were solicited responded to their questionnaire. The owners' response rate may be misleading. Many own- ers, because of tradition and other cultural reasons, and to a deck placement, in which the erection of girders has not been lesser degree technical considerations, do not construct many staged. steel bridges. For example, the Sun Belt and Western states do not construct nearly as many steel bridges as do the states REPORT ORGANIZATION of the Rust Belt and the Northeast. States that construct fewer steel bridges were among those not responding, possibly indi- This report is organized into a summary, seven chapters, and cating less interest in the topic. Thus, if the percentage of two appendixes. This first chapter is the introduction. Chapter steel bridges being constructed in a particular state is entered two discusses owner-specified or preferred practices, chapter into the analysis, it is found that the response rate is relatively three is a summary of fabricator practices and views, chapter high for those actively constructing steel bridges.