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8 random digit dial telephone interviewing cost-effective, but the duration surveys and took a median of 10 months to com- survey is too long or complex for on-board or intercept inter- plete. Non-O&D surveys involving 1,000 or more completed views to be practical. The combination is particularly cost- surveys took between 2 and 12 months to complete, with a effective for commuter railroads, where a large percentage of median duration of 6 months. Smaller surveys took from 1 to riders pass through a downtown terminal during their trip. 4 months, with a median duration of 3 months. TIME REQUIREMENTS As reported by transit agencies, survey planning and design, data collection, data cleaning and processing, and The overall amount of time for on-board survey projects, analysis and report writing each generally take about the from start to finish, ranged from several weeks to 29 months. same amount of time, although there is considerable varia- Systemwide O&D surveys tend to populate the longest- tion among projects.