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NATIONAL NCHRP REPORT 637 COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Guidelines for Dowel Alignment in Concrete Pavements

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2009 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley VICE CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles David S. Ekern, Commissioner, Virginia DOT, Richmond Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Will Kempton, Director, California DOT, Sacramento Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore Pete K. Rahn, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Bentonville, AR Rosa Clausell Rountree, Consultant, Tyrone, GA Steve T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin Linda S. Watson, CEO, LYNXCentral Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando Steve Williams, Chairman and CEO, Maverick Transportation, Inc., Little Rock, AR EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Thad Allen (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC James E. Caponiti, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Cynthia Douglass, Acting Deputy Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Rose A. McMurry, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Ronald Medford, Acting Deputy Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Lynne A. Osmus, Acting Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Jeffrey F. Paniati, Acting Deputy Administrator and Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT Steven K. Smith, Acting Deputy Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Jo Strang, Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Matthew Welbes, Executive Director and Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT *Membership as of February 2009.

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP REPORT 637 Guidelines for Dowel Alignment in Concrete Pavements Lev Khazanovich Kyle Hoegh UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Minneapolis, MN Mark Snyder CONSULTANT Bridgeville, PA Subject Areas Pavement Design, Management, and Performance Materials and Construction Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2009 www.TRB.org

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NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY NCHRP REPORT 637 RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective Project 10-69 approach to the solution of many problems facing highway ISSN 0077-5614 administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local ISBN: 978-0-309-11785-2 interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually Library of Congress Control Number 2009928687 or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the 2009 Transportation Research Board accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of COPYRIGHT PERMISSION cooperative research. Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published or copyrighted material used herein. initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission Transportation. from CRP. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Board's recognized objectivity and understanding of NOTICE modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, Governing Board's judgment that the program concerned is of national importance and state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed research directly to those who are in a position to use them. or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and, while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical committee, they are not necessarily those of The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the American by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, or the Federal Highway and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical committee according Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, the Federal Highway Administration, the American Association of State Highway selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and and Transportation Officials, and the individual states participating in the National surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of this report. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 637 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Amir N. Hanna, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 10-69 PANEL Field of Materials and Construction--Area of Specifications, Procedures, and Practices John Butterfield, Utah DOT, Salt Lake City, UT (Chair) Mohamed K. Elfino, Virginia DOT, Richmond, VA Geoffrey Hall, Maryland State Highway Administration, Hanover, MD Randy K. Pace, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh, NC Joe P. Palic, Kansas DOT, Marion, KS Thomas A. Pyle, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Leif Wathne, American Concrete Pavement Association, Washington, DC Samuel S. Tyson, FHWA Liaison Frederick Hejl, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 10-69 by the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Minnesota (UMN), Applied Research Associates Inc. (ARA), and Mark Snyder. UMN was the Prime Contractor, with ARA as a subcontractor, and Mark Snyder serving as a consultant. Dr. Lev Khazanovich, Associate Professor of Civil Engineering at UMN, was the Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report are Kyle Hoegh, Research Assistant at UMN, and Mark Snyder, Consul- tant. Other contributors include Shreenath Rao, Senior Engineer at ARA; Priyam Saxena, Research Assis- tant at UMN; Alex Gotlif, Staff Engineer at ARA; and Iliya Yut, Research Assistant at UMN. The work was done under the general supervision of Dr. Khazanovich.

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FOREWORD By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board This report presents proposed guidelines for dowel alignment in concrete pavements. These guidelines deal with the effects of dowel misalignment on performance and the measures for reducing misalignment and its adverse effect. The report will guide pave- ment and construction engineers in considering dowel misalignment in pavement design and identifying measures for reducing misalignment during construction or for dealing with misaligned dowels. The information contained in the report will be of immediate interest to state engineers and others concerned with concrete pavement design and construction. Dowels are used in jointed portland cement concrete pavements to provide load transfer, reduce faulting, and improve performance. These dowels are placed either manually before concrete placement or during construction by automatic dowel bar inserters to expedite construction and reduce cost. Inspection of pavements in several states revealed that mis- alignment of dowels generally occurs regardless of the placement method. These inspections also revealed that slab cracking and other forms of distress may not always occur as a result of such misalignment. However, limited research has been performed to determine the extent of dowel misalignment in pavement construction and its effect on performance. Thus research was needed to (1) address the issues associated with dowel alignment and to develop approaches for estimating the effects of different levels and types of misalignment on performance, (2) identify a methodology for considering misalignment in the design of concrete pavements, and (3) prepare guidelines on dowel alignment appropriate for use in performance related specifications. Under NCHRP Project 10-69, "Guidelines for Dowel Alignment in Concrete Pave- ments," University of Minnesota worked with the objective of recommending guidelines for dowel alignment in concrete pavements that consider the ranges of misalignment encoun- tered during construction and the effects of misalignment on performance, and present a rational approach for considering misalignment in the analysis and design process. These guidelines were to address all forms and combinations of dowel misalignment. To accom- plish this objective, the researchers reviewed available information pertaining to the align- ment of dowels in concrete pavements, conducted measurements on more than 35,000 dowels in 17 states, investigated the effects of dowel misalignment on pavement perfor- mance in a series of laboratory tests, and calibrated a finite element model to facilitate the analysis of misalignment effects on performance. Based on this work, the researchers pro- posed a methodology for considering dowel misalignment in pavement design and analy- sis and provided related guidelines. The proposed methodology and guidelines will be par- ticularly useful to highway agencies because their use will facilitate the consideration of

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misalignment in pavement design and help reduce misalignment during construction and mitigate its adverse effects. Appendixes A through D contained in the research agency's final report provide detailed information on the literature review, laboratory and field test results, and finite element analysis. These appendixes are not published herein; but they are available online at http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=10299. These appendixes are titled as follows: Appendix A: Review of Literature and Other Relevant Information Appendix B: Field Testing Results Appendix C: Laboratory Testing Results Appendix D: Finite Element Analysis

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CONTENTS 1 Chapter 1 Background 1 1.1 Problem Statement 1 1.2 Scope of Study 2 Chapter 2 Research Methodology 2 2.1 Introduction 4 2.2 Dowel Misalignment Assessment 6 2.3 Research Approach 15 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 15 3.1 Field Testing 20 3.2 Laboratory Testing 23 3.3 Analytical Modeling 24 3.4 Pavement Performance Modeling 31 3.5 Examples of Application of The Equivalency Concept 34 Chapter 4 Conclusions and Suggested Research 34 4.1 Conclusions 35 4.2 Suggested Research 36 References 38 Attachment A Recommended Guidelines for Dowel Alignment in Concrete Pavements 49 Appendixes