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Errata Available for This Synthesis ACRP AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 18 Sponsored by Aviation Workforce the Federal Development Practices Aviation Administration A Synthesis of Airport Practice

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ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* CHAIR OFFICERS JAMES WILDING Chair: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Independent Consultant Governments, Arlington Vice Chair: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore VICE CHAIR Executive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board JEFF HAMIEL MEMBERS MinneapolisSt. Paul Metropolitan Airports Commission J. BARRY BARKER, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY ALLEN D. BIEHLER, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg MEMBERS LARRY L. BROWN, SR., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson DEBORAH H. BUTLER, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern JAMES CRITES Corporation, Norfolk, VA DallasFt. Worth International Airport WILLIAM A.V. CLARK, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, RICHARD DE NEUFVILLE Los Angeles Massachusetts Institute of Technology NICHOLAS J. GARBER, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Unison Consulting JEFFREY W. HAMIEL, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN JOHN K. DUVAL EDWARD A. (NED) HELME, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Beverly Municipal Airport RANDELL H. IWASAKI, Director, California DOT, Sacramento KITTY FREIDHEIM ADIB K. KANAFANI, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Freidheim Consulting SUSAN MARTINOVICH, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City STEVE GROSSMAN DEBRA L. MILLER, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Jacksonville Aviation Authority PETE K. RAHN, Director, Missouri DOT, Jefferson City TOM JENSEN SANDRA ROSENBLOOM, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson National Safe Skies Alliance TRACY L. ROSSER, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA CATHERINE M. LANG STEVEN T. SCALZO, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Federal Aviation Administration HENRY G. (GERRY) SCHWARTZ, JR., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., GINA MARIE LINDSEY St. Louis, MO Los Angeles World Airports BEVERLY A. SCOTT, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid CAROLYN MOTZ Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA Hagerstown Regional Airport DAVID SELTZER, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA RICHARD TUCKER DANIEL SPERLING, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Huntsville International Airport Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis EX OFFICIO MEMBERS DOUGLAS W. STOTLAR, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. MICHAEL WALTON, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of SABRINA JOHNSON Texas, Austin U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RICHARD MARCHI EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Airports Council International-- THAD ALLEN (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of North America Homeland Security, Washington, DC LAURA McKEE PETER H. APPEL, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT Air Transport Association of America J. RANDOLPH BABBITT, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT HENRY OGRODZINSKI REBECCA M. BREWSTER, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, National Association of State Aviation Smyrna, GA Officials GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute MELISSA SABATINE of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, American Association of Airport Washington, DC Executives ANNE S. FERRO, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT ROBERT E. SKINNER, JR. LEROY GISHI, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of Transportation Research Board the Interior, Washington, DC EDWARD R. HAMBERGER, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC SECRETARY JOHN C. HORSLEY, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Transportation Research Board DAVID T. MATSUDA, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT VICTOR M. MENDEZ, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT WILLIAM W. MILLAR, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC CYNTHIA L. QUARTERMAN, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT PETER M. ROGOFF, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT DAVID L. STRICKLAND, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT JOSEPH C. SZABO, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT POLLY TROTTENBERG, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT ROBERT L. VAN ANTWERP (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2009. *Membership as of February 2010.

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 18 Aviation Workforce Development Practices A Synthesis of Airport Practice CONSULTANT SETH B. YOUNG International Aviation Management Group, Inc. Columbus, Ohio S UBSCRIBER C ATEGORIES Aviation Education and Training Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM ACRP SYNTHESIS 18 Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in Project 11-03, Topic S06-01 transportation of people and goods and in regional, national, and ISSN 1935-9187 international commerce. They are where the nation's aviation sys- ISBN 978-0-309-14306-6 tem connects with other modes of transportation and where federal Library of Congress Control Number 2010923251 responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common oper- ating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For and Transit Cooperative Research Program. The ACRP undertakes other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, maintenance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and adminis- NOTICE tration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Board's judgment that the the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from resources of the National Research Council. airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant indus- The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this try organizations such as the Airports Council International-North project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Execu- competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines tives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and sec- are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National retariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program spon- Research Council, or the Federal Aviation Administration of the U.S. sor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Department of Transportation. Academies formally initiating the program. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of air- panel according to procedures established and monitored by the port professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and Board of the National Research Council. research organizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited period- The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National ically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is Research Council, and the Federal Aviation Administration (sponsor of the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by the Airport Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein solely because and expected products. they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, reporting. appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the Published reports of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, are available from: ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the Transportation Research Board intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research Washington, DC 20001 reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academys p urposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Insti- tute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Board's varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation depart- ments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

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ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHAIR CRAWFORD F. JENCKS, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research BURR STEWART Programs Port of Seattle MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Senior Program Officer EILEEN DELANEY, Director of Publications MEMBERS RANDALL P. BURDETTE ACRP SYNTHESIS STAFF Virginia Department of Aviation STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs GARY C. CATHEY JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies California Department of Transportation GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer KEVIN C. DOLLIOLE DON TIPPMAN, Editor Unison Consulting, Inc. CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant JULIE KENFIELD DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc. CAROLYN MOTZ TOPIC PANEL Hagerstown Regional Airport MICHAEL AUDINO, University of South Florida, Tampa TIM CALLISTER, Mead & Hunt, Inc., Minneapolis FAA LIAISON SUSAN CRANE, SkillUp Washington, Seattle RANDY MOSENG CHRISTINE GERENCHER, Transportation Research Board DELORES HOFMAN, Queens Air Services Development Office ACINORTH AMERICA LIAISON DAVID NEWMYER, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale J.J. MULDOON KARA SANDIFUR, 459 Current Ops, USAF, Odenton, MD GEORGE STAMAS, Bureau of Labor Statistics AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS WILLIAM A. WHITLEY, Boeing Company, Everett, WA ASSOCIATION LIAISON PAUL L. FRIEDMAN, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) JOHN L. COLLINS AIMEE A. MCCORMICK, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) TRB LIAISON CHRISTINE GERENCHER

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FOREWORD Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a conse- quence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, "Synthesis of Information Re- lated to Airport Practices," searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE A workforce of trained and skilled professionals is essential to the health and growth of By Gail R. Staba the aviation industry. In addition to the labor needs of the nation's air carriers and air traf- Senior Program Officer fic control workforce, thousands of the nation's airports and hundreds of aviation compa- Transportation nies are in need of a wide range of talent to perform a wide variety of functions, from fun- Research Board damental operations tasks to filling higher-level strategic management roles. Local, state, and federal agencies, as well as aviation planning, engineering, and management consult- ing firms require a workforce that is both technically educated and experienced in the op- eration of the nation's aviation system. Despite this need, many in the industry are finding it difficult to hire and develop workforce talent with the education and skills to help ad- vance the industry. The purpose of this report is to synthesize information on airport oper- ating entity jobs and related skill sets needed to perform those jobs. This synthesis is in- tended for managers of airports and other aviation industry organizations that wish to gain insight into the workforce development needs, opportunities, and resources available to the industry, and also identifies opportunities and resources that provide training on the skill sets needed to fulfill airport-related jobs. Gaps between skill sets and educational and ad- vancement opportunities are documented. Information used in this study was acquired through a review of the literature and survey of airport operators and industry experts. Seth B. Young, International Aviation Management Group, Inc., Columbus, Ohio, col- lected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge avail- able at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.

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CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Defining "Workforce Development," 3 Workforce Development in the Aviation Industry, 4 Organization of Report, 4 5 CHAPTER TWO AVIATION INDUSTRY WORKFORCE Regional, State, and Federal Government Aviation Departments, 5 Airports, 5 Aviation Planning, Engineering, and Consulting Firms, 7 10 CHAPTER THREE EXISTING AVIATION WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES In-House Programs, 10 Organizations Providing Workforce Development Resources, 11 23 CHAPTER FOUR INNOVATIVE WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES Internship and Apprenticeship Programs, 23 Integrated Partnerships, 23 Airport and University Partnerships, 24 28 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS Conclusions, 28 Further Research, 28 30 REFERENCES 31 APPENDIX A UAA Member Institutions of Higher Education 36 APPENDIX B Aviation Professional Organizations with Workforce Development Resources