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HMCRP HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM REPORT 2 Sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Assessing Soil and Administration Groundwater Impacts of Chemical Mixture Releases from Hazardous Materials Transportation Incidents

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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2010 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Michael R. Morris, Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington VICE CHAIR: Neil J. Pedersen, Administrator, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board MEMBERS J. Barry Barker, Executive Director, Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, KY Allen D. Biehler, Secretary, Pennsylvania DOT, Harrisburg Larry L. Brown, Sr., Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson Deborah H. Butler, Executive Vice President, Planning, and CIO, Norfolk Southern Corporation, Norfolk, VA William A.V. Clark, Professor, Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles Eugene A. Conti, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, North Carolina DOT, Raleigh Nicholas J. Garber, Henry L. Kinnier Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, and Director, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Virginia, Charlottesville Jeffrey W. Hamiel, Executive Director, Metropolitan Airports Commission, Minneapolis, MN Paula J. Hammond, Secretary, Washington State DOT, Olympia Edward A. (Ned) Helme, President, Center for Clean Air Policy, Washington, DC Adib K. Kanafani, Cahill Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley Susan Martinovich, Director, Nevada DOT, Carson City Debra L. Miller, Secretary, Kansas DOT, Topeka Sandra Rosenbloom, Professor of Planning, University of Arizona, Tucson Tracy L. Rosser, Vice President, Corporate Traffic, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., Mandeville, LA Steven T. Scalzo, Chief Operating Officer, Marine Resources Group, Seattle, WA Henry G. (Gerry) Schwartz, Jr., Chairman (retired), Jacobs/Sverdrup Civil, Inc., St. Louis, MO Beverly A. Scott, General Manager and Chief Executive Officer, Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority, Atlanta, GA David Seltzer, Principal, Mercator Advisors LLC, Philadelphia, PA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies; and Interim Director, Energy Efficiency Center, University of California, Davis Kirk T. Steudle, Director, Michigan DOT, Lansing Douglas W. Stotlar, President and CEO, Con-Way, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI C. Michael Walton, Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering, University of Texas, Austin EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Peter H. Appel, Administrator, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S.DOT J. Randolph Babbitt, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S.DOT Rebecca M. Brewster, President and COO, American Transportation Research Institute, Smyrna, GA George Bugliarello, President Emeritus and University Professor, Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Brooklyn; Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC Anne S. Ferro, Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S.DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC David T. Matsuda, Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S.DOT Victor M. Mendez, Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S.DOT William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Tara O'Toole, Under Secretary for Science and Technology, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Robert J. Papp (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC Cynthia L. Quarterman, Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Peter M. Rogoff, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S.DOT David L. Strickland, Administrator, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S.DOT Joseph C. Szabo, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S.DOT Polly Trottenberg, Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, U.S.DOT Robert L. Van Antwerp (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC *Membership as of October 2010.

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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM HMCRP REPORT 2 Assessing Soil and Groundwater Impacts of Chemical Mixture Releases from Hazardous Materials Transportation Incidents Richard G. Lewis Ziqi He HSA ENGINEERS & SCIENTISTS A Member of the Conestoga-Rovers & Associates Family of Companies Fort Myers, FL Subscriber Categories Highways Motor Carriers Railroads Environment Freight Transportation Geotechnology Hydraulics and Hydrology Research sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org

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HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE HMCRP REPORT 2 RESEARCH PROGRAM The safety, security, and environmental concerns associated with Project HM-06 transportation of hazardous materials are growing in number and ISSN 2150-4849 complexity. Hazardous materials are substances that are flammable, ISBN: 978-0-309-15527-4 explosive, or toxic or that, if released, produce effects that would threaten Library of Congress Control Number 2010941499 human safety, health, the environment, or property. Hazardous materials 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. are moved throughout the country by all modes of freight transportation, including ships, trucks, trains, airplanes, and pipelines. The private sector and a diverse mix of government agencies at all levels are responsible for controlling the transport of hazardous materials and for COPYRIGHT INFORMATION ensuring that hazardous cargoes move without incident. This shared goal Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining has spurred the creation of several venues for organizations with related written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously interests to work together in preventing and responding to hazardous published or copyrighted material used herein. materials incidents. The freight transportation and chemical industries; Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this government regulatory and enforcement agencies at the federal and state publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the levels; and local emergency planners and responders routinely share understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. information, resources, and expertise. Nevertheless, there has been a long- It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- standing gap in the system for conducting hazardous materials safety and for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or security research. Industry organizations and government agencies have reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. their own research programs to support their mission needs. Collaborative research to address shared problems takes place occasionally, but mostly occurs on an ad hoc basis. NOTICE Acknowledging this gap in 2004, the U.S. DOT Office of Hazardous The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Hazardous Materials Materials Safety, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, the Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the Federal Railroad Administration, and the U.S. Coast Guard pooled their approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. resources for a study. Under the auspices of the Transportation Research The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this Board (TRB), the National Research Council of the National Academies report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. appointed a committee to examine the feasibility of creating a cooperative The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to research program for hazardous materials transportation, similar in concept procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved to the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and the by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). The committee concluded, The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the in TRB Special Report 283: Cooperative Research for Hazardous Materials researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. Transportation: Defining the Need, Converging on Solutions, that the need for cooperative research in this field is significant and growing, and the The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research committee recommended establishing an ongoing program of cooperative Council, and the sponsors of the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein research. In 2005, based in part on the findings of that report, the Safe, solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU) authorized the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) to contract with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct the Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program (HMCRP). The HMCRP is intended to complement other U.S. DOT research programs as a stakeholder-driven, problem-solving program, researching real-world, day-to-day operational issues with near- to mid- term time frames. Published reports of the HAZARDOUS MATERIALS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

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COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS CRP STAFF FOR HMCRP REPORT 2 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Editor Rachel Kirkland, Senior Editorial Assistant HMCRP PROJECT 06 PANEL Thomas Moses, Spill Center, Hudson, MA (Chair) Craig Bartlett, DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE Cheryl A. "Cherry" Burke, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI Robert E. Fronczak, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Zdenek "Zed" Hejzlar, Engineering Systems, Inc., Fort Myers, FL John Walton, University of Texas - El Paso, El Paso, TX Ryan F. Paquet, PHMSA Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under Dr. Richard G. Lewis, P.E., Principal at HSA Engi- neers & Scientists. Dr. Ziqi (Zeke) He, P.E., Environmental Engineer with HSA Engineers & Scientists, was responsible for the thermodynamic calculation and design tool. William H. Hutchings, P.G., Professional Geologist with HSA Engineers & Scientists and Ph.D. candidate at the University of South Florida, was responsible for fate transport modeling. Gordon L. Walters, P.E., Environmental Engineer at HSA Engi- neers & Scientists, was responsible for the tool interface design. Kevin W. Worsham, Database Developer with Conestoga-Rovers & Associates (CRA), and Julie Lidstone, Associate Database Manager with CRA, were responsible for visual basic coding of the tool design. Doug Soutter, Hydrogeologist with CRA, assisted with UNIFAC design. Dr. Hongze Gao, P.E., with CRA, assisted with the screening model design. Ronald Foster, Senior Processing Engineer with CRA, assisted with the data and methodology collection. In addition, the environmental department group at the office of HSA Engineers & Scientists in Fort Myers, Florida, and the emergency response team at CRA's office in Dallas, Texas, participated in data col- lection of chemical properties and the most commonly transported hazardous materials.

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FOREWORD By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board HMCRP Report 2: Assessing Soil and Groundwater Impacts of Chemical Mixture Releases from Hazardous Materials Transportation Incidents presents a tool to assess, classify, predict, and quickly communicate fate and transport characteristics of chemical mixtures released into the soil and groundwater as a result of hazardous materials transportation incidents. The tool was developed with a wide range of users in mind. For technical users, the prop- erty output table generates the fate and transport properties of an input mixture. For emer- gency response teams, it provides a quick review of the emergency response requirements of a spill. For non-technical users, a color-coding function is included in the tool to com- pare the critical fate and transport properties to their pure chemical counterpart and high- light the key parameters affecting the mixture transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones. The tool can also be used to determine whether shipping certain chemicals separately or in mixtures will have significantly higher costs if an incident occurs and to estimate rel- ative costs and timeframes of cleanup after an incident occurs. Screening models, as well as detailed, computationally intensive models, exist to charac- terize site-specific impacts on soil and groundwater from hazardous materials releases. These models require various fate and transport parameters as input, which are generally available for pure chemical compounds. However, these parameters are typically unavail- able for many of the commonly transported hazardous materials mixtures such as herbi- cides, paint, cleaning compounds, motor oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and ethanol. Under HMCRP Project 06, HSA Engineers & Scientists was asked to (1) define and cat- egorize the environmental hazards to soil and groundwater of pure chemicals and mixtures; (2) identify sources and collect readily available data on fate and transport properties; (3) develop a typology and identify and classify common solvents and mixtures that are likely to be transported; (4) develop a typology to estimate the key parameters for different chem- ical mixtures; (5) design a tool to characterize, predict, and communicate the impact of chemical mixtures in soil and groundwater environments and to estimate the fate and trans- port parameters of chemical mixtures released to soil and groundwater as a result of haz- ardous materials transportation incidents; (6) using the tool, estimate the fate and transport parameters for 5 to 10 representative mixtures commonly transported and apply existing basic screening models to estimate impact to soil and groundwater; and (7) refine the tool to compare fate and transport characteristics of pure chemicals to chemical mixtures in order to rank the relative impacts to soil and groundwater. The chemical mixture tool, a user guide, and the contractor's final report for HMCRP Project 06 can be found on CRP-CD-90: Chemical Mixture Tool for HMCRP Report 2, which is bound into this publication. For the convenience of readers, the research team's Tool Design Process Example (Appendix H) and the User Operational Manual (Appendix M) are also provided herein.

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CONTENTS 1 Summary 6 Contents of Contractor's Final Report for HMCRP Project 06 (Final Report Contained on CRP-CD-90) 9 Appendix H Tool Design Process Example 32 Appendix M User Operational Manual 54 List of Acronyms and Symbols