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33 · Partnerships--degree of formality with PSAs, level of Step 3: Analyze Data, Survey, outsourcing and private-sector contract management and Interviews approach. The empirical data, survey, and interviews were conducted The interviews were designed to determine the presence or to identify key relationships between SO&M programs and absence of these features and their basic qualitative character- business processes, comparing mature states with transition- istics, based on the personal views of the interviewee. Because ing states to determine key institutional characteristics that interview responses were not for attribution by individual support effective programs. To relate institutional architecture or specific state, the candid responses provided previously to the apparent level of SO&M program impacts, the approach undocumented perspectives on strengths and weaknesses needed to identify the key business processes that appeared of the agency's programs and business processes and the to be essential to effective programs, as well as to distinguish institutional context to draw general conclusions about the varying levels of effectiveness. Therefore, in this step, the range transportation agencies. of responses in the survey was analyzed in two parts. The first In addition to the selected interviews, a brief written response part determined the range of practices in the business processes survey was administered to 22 state DOT representatives at that directly supported the SO&M program. This included the 2008 annual meeting of the AASHTO Subcommittee an identification of the institutional implications of the key on Systems Operations and Management. The same basic processes. This analysis was then used, in the second part, to questionnaire structure was used for both the interviews consider the institutional differences among the state DOTs and the survey, addressing both program/process and surveyed to more rigorously determine the key institutional institutional issues, but the survey only required yes/no or differences and their relative roles in supporting improved short-phrase answers. The survey instrument is included as business processes. Appendix C. These two analyses are discussed in the next chapter.