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37 · Application aggressiveness. The ability of applications, as Formal Mission, Vision, and Goal Establishment revealed in concepts of operations, ITS architectures, A leadership decision to make a major program adjustment procedures and protocols, and so forth, to achieve full, may require a change in the agency's formal statements of effective, and responsive implementation in terms of the organizational intent. Several of the state DOTs surveyed in intended objective. The level of impact in NRC reduction this project have made changes in their public and external is difficult to determine without the utilization of per- expressions or orientation. In some cases, these changes formance measures. Several of the mature state DOTs are have occurred as part of a formal strategic planning process now using outcome measures related to travel time and involving significant reconsideration of agency roles in a several measures specific to intermediate performance, changing context for transportation improvements. In a few such as incident response time. instances, an increased orientation to customer and per- · Comprehensiveness and consistency. The applications are formance (leading to greater attention to operations) has systematically related to user problems encountered by emerged out of formal process reengineering and quality location (i.e., regions), consistent on both a network and methods, such as business process reengineering, balanced condition basis, and appropriate to all functional classes. scorecards, and Baldrige certification. A few states identify safety "black spots" or winter- weather-sensitive locations for positioning of permanent or temporary equipment. However, there has been little SO&M Integration into the Planning/Design Process development of warrants that would provide guidance for consistent applications. The range of SO&M deployed by For the most part, statewide comprehensive planning does region varies widely: 3540% of metropolitan freeways not include facility-level specificity. As a result, the few have some kind of surveillance and about 40% are covered statewide ITS or SO&M plans have been limited to the most by safety service patrols (U.S. Department of Transporta- mature programs, despite the general requirements in plan- tion, Research and Innovative Technology Administra- ning for federal aid investments. There have also been only a tion, 2009b). few metropolitan ITS/operations plans, typically MPO-led efforts. However, even the mature states have done limited planning. Systems engineering consistency also varies widely. Technical Processes The mature states have largely completed statewide architec- Definition tures to comply with federal requirements, but in the absence federal aid requirements, many states and districts within Technical processes are the replicable, routine activities under- states lack formal architectures and agreed-upon concepts of taken to define, develop, manage, support, and implement any operations. There is considerable standardization and guid- program. They include the conventions of planning, program- ance in systems design, developed with the systems engineer- ming, budgeting, engineering, project development, procure- ing process and required for federal aid projects through the ment, and deployment or implementation. FHWA systems engineering and ITS architecture guidance. Indicators and Range Regular Programming and Budgeting of SO&M within Agencywide Activities In most major transportation agencies, conventional capital and maintenance project development are supported by well- SO&M capital budgeting is typically ad hoc and project or ini- defined technical processes. A parallel set of processes for tiative specific, conducted alongside the agency process or on SO&M must be defined and standardized. In addition, such an as-needed basis. Only two states address SO&M as a stand- processes must be documented to ensure consistency and alone, multiyear, and annual budgeting process at the same sustainability and to reduce the dependence on individuals level of formality as other core programs. Even in those states and special relationships as the basis for efficient implemen- with the more formal resource allocation process, the scopes tation. In the transitioning states, the standardization of tech- are limited to freeway applications and do not include arterial nical processes for SO&M improvements is in the early stages. investments. Key indicator levels include formal mission, vision, and goal establishment; SO&M integration into the planning/design Project Development and Procurement Processes process; regular programming and budgeting of SO&M Development and Documentation within agencywide activities; project development and pro- curement processes development and documentation; and SO&M capital improvements are typically developed on an ITS asset management systems. ad hoc basis (by project champions), often on a firefighting