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OCR for page 71
A P P E N D I X A U.S. Institutional Arrangements Compared with England and Australia Table A.1. U.S. Institutional Arrangements Compared with England and Australia International Differences Institutional Issues Related to Preconditions for Effective United States England Congestion Management (Typical Large State DOT) The Highways Agency (HA) Australia Accommodation in strategy Not highest priority--even in Congestion management is Congestion management portfolio congested states given high priority is becoming more impor- Overall priority/visibility in Not discussed with legislature HA has a Network Opera- tant, but priority is still DOT program No direct reporting, accounta- tions division covering traffic given to providing new Contact with/support of rel- bility to legislature or public operations and network highway infrastructure evant external stakeholders Different strategy mixes strategy Congestion management Key strategies employed among states Single strategy for Strategic is responsibility of state Road Network and/or local government Performance measures relat- Different strategies among ing to journey time reliability, the states maintenance standards, and Privately owned toll roads response times are operated by the concessionaire Performance measures tend to focus on reducing Plan accidents rather than improving journey time reli- ability or congestion Integration: How operations Practice varies widely among Operations (on road and Operations is not listed are budgeted and planned in states--urban and rural control room) included in separately in most state context of other programs Operations not in formal planning and budgeting budgets (construction, maintenance) planning or budgeting process at national level for Queensland identifies opera- process at state level; rarely the next four years tions as 2% of total high- at regional level (via MPOs) HA and police roles clearly ways budget No line item in state budget for set out following review in operations 2003 Functional divisions do not Traffic Management Act include operations at first requires highway authorities level--stovepiping to work together to secure the expeditious movement of traffic (continued on next page) 71

OCR for page 71
72 Table A.1. U.S. Institutional Arrangements Compared with England and Australia (continued) International Differences Institutional Issues Related to Preconditions for Effective United States England Congestion Management (Typical Large State DOT) The Highways Agency (HA) Australia Systems engineering technical DOT regions quite indepen- Operations is a key part of Most states have a traffic capacity dent in program development Highway Agency's work management center. Some Organizational structure Lack of availability of trained HA directly employs and are joint ventures with city Allocation of responsibilities technical and management trains traffic officers and con- councils--e.g., Queensland between central office and staff trol room operators and Brisbane. regions Regional structure based Some states, including New around seven regional control South Wales (NSW), centers Queensland, and Western National Traffic Control Cen- Australia, have recently set tre provides traffic information up on-road patrols and strategic diversion rout- ing on a national basis Regional, situational HA is at forefront in using ITS Federal ITS framework awareness to deal with recurrent con- architecture to allow devel- gestion opment of local projects Implement National standards for tech- while ensuring interoper- nology on motorways and ability trunk roads Sustainability and transparency Adequate resources for Level of resourcing and of budget for congestion motorway network functionality varies between management HA is looking into diverting states and within states. some existing resources onto Brisbane Traffic Response trunk road network Units have target response HA is taking on vehicle recov- time of 10 min; there is a ery role for broken down lower level of patrol outside vehicles on trunk road net- of the city. Sydney has work 10 traffic commanders on patrol 24/7, with reduced resources elsewhere in NSW. Western Australia only patrols between 06:00 and 18:30. Interagency cooperation Police and fire have incident Incidents are generally led Emergency services have Operational; management command by law but different by HA incident command and coordination; agency priorities form DOTs Police have different priorities Incident response units cultures and priorities DOTs support and than HA and only take lead support and provide infor- Formality of relationships communicate for injury accidents and sus- mation to traffic manage- Some outsourcing of TMCs, pected criminality ment center SSP, ITS maintenance Roles and responsibilities of HA and police are formally agreed upon Highway infrastructure and ITS maintenance is outsourced Operate Coordinated execution Relationship with public Formal relationship between Formal relationship with safety agencies subsidiary HA, police, and other emer- police. In some cases (e.g., and informal gency services NSW), officers are perma- Cultures of law enforcement nently based in the traffic not interested in traffic management center. Performance focus via use of Performance measures limited HA is measured on safety Targets tend to focus on objective-related perfor- to outputs, not outcomes and journey time reliability improving safety but only mance measures Culture of continuous on maintaining the status improvement quo with regard to conges- tion and journey time relia- bility Focus tends to be on pro- viding new infrastructure (continued on next page)

OCR for page 71
73 Table A.1. U.S. Institutional Arrangements Compared with England and Australia (continued) International Differences Institutional Issues Related to Preconditions for Effective United States England Congestion Management (Typical Large State DOT) The Highways Agency (HA) Australia ITS asset management ITS assets undermaintained Asset management is Federal government funds (lack line-item budget) included in planning and maintenance of AusLink budgeting process roads. Some states claim ITS maintenance is out- they receive too little to sourced properly maintain aging Database of all ITS assets, Maintain assets. including age and condition ITS maintenance is not sep- arately identified in budgets Privately owned toll facili- ties maintain their own equipment