Butte et al., 1984

Mean age, 28 yr; 91% Caucasian; mean duration of education, 15.4 yr


1–4 mo

Four 3-day records

Song et al., 1985

Age, 20 to 35 yr; all Caucasian


2 wk and 3 mo

2-day record (checked with 24- and 48-h recalls)

Strode et al., 1986

Mean age, 30 yr


6–24 wk

Two 7-day records (1 wk apart)


Lipsman et al., 1985

Age, 14 to 20 yr; mixed ethnic backgrounds; 56% WICa participants; 72% receiving AFDCb


1–6 mo

24-h recall, one to nine recalls per subject


Finley et al., 1985

Mean age, 29 yr; 60% college graduates

29 (those who consumed no meat or poultry)

2–18 mo

24-h recall and 2-day record; food frequency questionnaire administered twice

American Indian

Butte et al., 1981

Navajos on reservation; mean age, 22.4 yr; mean duration of education, 10.6 yr


1 mo

24-h recall, food habits and beliefs questionnaire

Low-income women

Sneed et al., 1981

Recruited from WIC program; low socioeconomic status determined subjectively from home visits and personal information; age, 18 to 32 yr; no recent use of oral contraceptives


5–6 days and 43–45 days

4-day record

a WIC = Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children.

b AFDC = Aid to Families with Dependent Children.

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