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FIGURE 2.1 The Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer mission has produced one of the most accurate geoid models to date. The deviations in height (–100 m to +100 m) from an ellipsoid are exaggerated 10,000 times in the image. The blue colors represent low values and the reds/yellows represent high values. SOURCE: ESA/HPF/DLR.

engineering, physics, astronomy, mathe matics, or computer science.

The knowledge taught at the undergraduate level is similar in breadth, but less in depth than that taught at the graduate level. Courses include specialized mathematics such as adjustment calculus (least-squares analysis), geodetic coordinate systems and datums, the elements of the Earth’s gravity field, and the basics of geodetic positioning techniques such as high-precision GPS surveying. Students should be well versed in the mathematical and physical principles underlying geodesy so that during their careers they can readily



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