total number of graduates in relevant fields of study and thus would yield substantially lower projections. Based on how the core and emerging areas have evolved over the past few decades, it is likely that the number of graduates will rise in all areas except photogrammetry and cartography over the next 20 years.

Based on the education and labor analysis, the answer to Task 1 is that the current number of U.S. citizens and permanent residents with education is likely on the order of tens for photogrammetry; tens to hundreds for GEOINT fusion, crowdsourcing, human geography, and visual analytics; hundreds for geodesy, geophysics, and cartographic science; hundreds to thousands for remote sensing and forecasting; and thousands for GIS and geospatial analysis. In addition, U.S. citizens currently hold more than 100,000 jobs in occupations closely related to the core areas. If substantial on-the-job training is an option for NGA, the current labor pool increases to 200,000 new graduates and 2.4 million experienced workers. If 10-year growth trends in the “upper-bound” estimate continue, the number of new graduates could reach 312,000–649,000 by 2030.



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