Current Training Programs

The gaps in geospatial intelligence-related knowledge and skills identified in Chapter 5 can be filled through education and training. Training in the disciplines, methods, and technologies underlying geospatial intelligence is offered by a variety of organizations. University undergraduate programs provide the basic knowledge and skills needed by National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) scientists and analysts. More specialized training is available through university graduate programs, professional development programs sponsored by government agencies and private companies, and workshops and short courses offered by professional and scientific societies. This chapter describes education and training programs relevant to geospatial intelligence offered by these diverse organizations (Task 3). Few of these programs were designed specifically for NGA’s employment needs and, thus, do not offer all of the knowledge and skills needed by the agency (e.g., mathematics, statistics).

The knowledge, skills, and techniques used to produce geospatial intelligence are diverse, so the list of relevant education and training programs is long. Consequently, the committee chose a set of representative examples in universities, government agencies, professional societies, and industry that meet a range of geospatial intelligence needs. Examples were chosen based on two or more of the following criteria:

• a long record of accomplishment in producing graduates with relevant knowledge and skills;

• a critical mass of high-caliber instructors;

• a significant number of students receive training; and

• an opportunity to solve problems in a real world context.


Universities provide students with a strong foundation in state-of-the-art geospatial science and technology as well as a means to augment skills with specialized training in a particular subject. Some universities also provide other types of skills and experience useful for producing geospatial intelligence, such as the ability to think and work across discipline boundaries, to combine scientific knowledge with practical workforce skills, or to apply scientific knowledge to solve real-world problems. Examples are described below.

Undergraduate Degree

Undergraduate degree programs are the primary supplier of geospatial skills, concepts, and knowledge for most geospatial analysts. The Department of Geography at the University of Colorado, Boulder, offers a typical undergraduate curriculum that teaches geospatial knowledge and skills. The department offers three primary emphases in geographic information science: Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, and cartographic visualization. The GIS track focuses on spatial data structures and algorithms and on the application of GIS for modeling physical and human systems. The remote sensing track emphasizes

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6 Current Training Programs T he gaps in geospatial intelligence-related • a significant number of students receive training; knowledge and skills identified in Chapter 5 and can be filled through education and training. • an opportunity to solve problems in a real world Training in the disciplines, methods, and technolo- context. gies underlying geospatial intelligence is offered by a variety of organizations. University undergraduate pro- UNIVERSITIES grams provide the basic knowledge and skills needed by National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Universities provide students with a strong founda- scientists and analysts. More specialized training is tion in state-of-the-art geospatial science and technol- available through university graduate programs, pro- ogy as well as a means to augment skills with specialized fessional development programs sponsored by govern- training in a particular subject. Some universities also ment agencies and private companies, and workshops provide other types of skills and experience useful for and short courses offered by professional and scientific producing geospatial intelligence, such as the ability to societies. This chapter describes education and train- think and work across discipline boundaries, to combine ing programs relevant to geospatial intelligence offered scientific knowledge with practical workforce skills, or by these diverse organizations (Task 3). Few of these to apply scientific knowledge to solve real-world prob- programs were designed specifically for NGA’s employ- lems. Examples are described below. ment needs and, thus, do not offer all of the knowledge and skills needed by the agency (e.g., mathematics, Undergraduate Degree statistics). The knowledge, skills, and techniques used to Undergraduate degree programs are the primary produce geospatial intelligence are diverse, so the list supplier of geospatial skills, concepts, and knowledge of relevant education and training programs is long. for most geospatial analysts. The Department of Consequently, the committee chose a set of represen- Geography at the University of Colorado, Boulder, tative examples in universities, government agencies, offers a typical undergraduate curriculum that teaches professional societies, and industry that meet a range geospatial knowledge and skills. The department offers of geospatial intelligence needs. Examples were chosen three primary emphases in geographic information sci- based on two or more of the following criteria: ence: Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, and cartographic visualization. The GIS track • a long record of accomplishment in producing focuses on spatial data structures and algorithms and graduates with relevant knowledge and skills; on the application of GIS for modeling physical and • a critical mass of high-caliber instructors; human systems. The remote sensing track emphasizes 77

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78 FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE image processing for environmental modeling and to GEOG 4103 (Introduction to GIS) and GEOG monitoring. The cartographic visualization track em- 4203 (Advanced Quantitative Methods). Core skills phasizes geographic information design and Internet covered in these classes include the understanding of and World Wide Web spatial data applications. maps, scale, geodesy and map projections, cartographic The University of Colorado undergraduate ­ ajor m transformations, georectification, and coordinate in geography with a concentration in geographic systems. More advanced classes cover map analysis, information science requires 45 credits. The flow of image analysis and interpretation, the representation g ­ eography courses is shown in Figure 6.1 and descrip- of geographical objects and fields, spatial modeling, tions of the courses are given in Table A.11 in Appen­ and statistics. The classes require students to down- dix A. The term “required” indicates which courses load, merge, and process imagery and map data, and s ­ atisfy prerequisites in the flow. For example, GEOG to create new versions and interpretations to suit a 3023 (Statistics for Earth Sciences) is prerequisite particular goal. FIGURE 6.1  Course of study at the University of Colorado, Boulder, for an undergraduate degree in geography with a concentration in geographic information science. GEOG 2053 (dashed box) is optional.

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CURRENT TRAINING PROGRAMS 79 Graduate Degree science master’s programs are now coordinated by the Council of Graduate Schools.2 Some universities offer graduate programs de- Four universities offer geospatially oriented profes- signed especially for federal workers and contractors. sional science master’s programs under the Council of For example, the master’s of science program at George Graduate Schools. North Carolina State University Mason University is tailored to military or government o ­ ffers a professional science master’s degree in Geo- contractors and emphasizes training to solve real- spatial Information Science and Technology, which is world problems. George Mason University is located aimed at the development, management, and applica- near a cluster of federal employers in the Washington, tion of new technology to understand and manage D.C., region, which is attractive to workers seeking spatial phenomena, such as economic development, part-time graduate training while remaining em- disease, emergency planning and response, and envi­ ployed. Moreover, many instructors come from the ronmental resources. Other relevant professional sci- federal government, which facilitates communication ence master’s programs include Applied Geospatial between an academic training center and government Sciences, Geospatial Technologies Emphasis (North- employers. ern Arizona University), Cartography and Geographi- The George Mason University master’s in geo- cal Information Systems (Binghamton University), graphic and cartographic sciences focuses on prepar- and Geographical Information Systems and Remote ing students for careers in geography, remote sensing, Sensing (University of Pittsburgh). and GIS, as well as cartography, visualization, and Some master’s programs have similarities to the modeling.1 Courses concentrate on the techniques professional science master’s model, even though they of compilation, display, and analysis of spatial data, lack the formal designation by the Council of Gradu- and on ­ ssociated applications (see Table A.12, Ap- a ate Schools. For example, several universities offer pendix A). In addition to a core curriculum consisting professional master’s degrees aimed at current practi- of coursework in GIS, remote sensing, and quantita- tioners as well as students seeking employment in the tive methods, students may take up to 24 credits of geospatial technology industry. Examples include the elective coursework. Electives focus on environmental ­Pennsylvania State University, University of ­Minnesota, a ­ pplications, such as land use or hydrographic appli­ University of Southern California, Northwest Missouri cations; on cultural and human systems, such as trans- State University, University of Denver, and the Uni- portation, food security, and medical applications (e.g., versity of ­ olorado, Denver. Some master’s programs C GIS ­ pplications to model disease vectors); or on stra- a in geography require internships, hire professionals to tegic applications, such as the geography of insurgency. teach courses as adjunct instructors, and specify applied In-depth training in cartography, spatial database man- geography in the degree title or area of concentration. agement, and programming is also offered. Distance Learning Professional Science Master’s Program.  Many em- ployers are looking for individuals who possess scien- The traditional campus-based programs discussed tific expertise along with practical workforce skills in above are not convenient for everyone, including communication, management, legal and regulatory af- indi­ iduals who work full time or who live far from a v fairs, and administration. Professional science master’s suitable university. Distance learning programs offer programs are intended to produce graduates with this students a path to receiving formal training without mix of scientific and practical skills. Internships are requiring physical access to campuses as well as the required of students, and an employer advisory board flexibility to choose the time of day they devote to must be involved in program design and evaluation. study. A growing number of universities provide on- The degree model was developed from an initiative of the Sloan Foundation in the 1990s, and professional 2 See the program description provided by the National Professional Science Masters Association at and 1 See . .

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80 FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE line education and training in geospatial areas. Penn- dards associated with geographic information science sylvania State University was one of the first to offer certificates. Rather, each institution determines the such programs and its online GIS curriculum has had course content and number of credit hours required to time to mature. The Pennsylvania State World Cam- complete the certificate. Most geographic information pus offers a number of professional degrees, without science certificates are awarded for advanced theoretical the requirement of a thesis, including a master’s in and technical training. For example, the University of geographic information systems and another in geo- Texas, Dallas, offers two 15-hour graduate certificates spatial intelligence.3 Courses are taught by 25 instruc- in remote sensing: one focused on remote sensing tors, about half of whom are in residence at Pennsyl- and digital image processing and the other focused vania State University. All courses are 10 weeks long on the application of geospatial ideas and techniques and require 8 to 12 hours of student effort per week. to national security and intelligence. The National The degree requires 35 credits, including 6 credits at Center for Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law at the the 400 level and a minimum of 12 additional credits University of Mississippi offers a 12-hour certificate in at the 500 level or above (see course descriptions in remote sensing, air, and space law.4 Table A.15 (Ap- Table A.13, Appendix A). Graduate-level courses pendix A) summarizes the course requirements for a in technical writing or project management may be certificate in GIS with an emphasis in remote sensing counted toward the degree as electives. Topics covered at the University of Utah. include geodatabase design, spatial analysis, project A few certificates are awarded for taking a single management, and geospatial data analysis. course, independent of a formal academic degree. For An interesting advance in distance learning is example, the University of Twente International Insti- Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), which tute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observa- provide free online courses to anyone interested. Some tion offers certificates in a variety of geospatial topics, MOOCs have attracted more than 100,000 students including remote sensing, hyperspectral remote sens- (Lewin, 2012). MOOCs have the potential to reach ing, remote sensing and digital image processing, car- students who might not otherwise learn about geo­ tography and geovisualization, and principles of GIS.5 spatial science or technology. However, they have yet to be proven effective (e.g., Fini, 2009), and the special- Interdisciplinary Programs ized topics of interest to NGA may not attract the large numbers of students targeted by MOOCs. Although there is an enduring need for deep ex- pertise in the various scientific disciplines, demand is Certificates growing for graduates who can think and work across disciplinary boundaries to solve large and complex Certificate programs are a popular training option problems of importance to science and society (NRC, for students or professionals who want to augment their 1994, 1995; Nerad and Cerny, 1999; Nyquist et al., skills without obtaining another degree. Certificates 1999; Nyquist, 2000; Golde and Dore, 2001; Pallas, acknowledge special training in selected subject matter, 2001; Lélé and Norgaard, 2004). An interdisciplinary and they are commonly awarded as part of a bachelor’s, perspective can be helpful for dealing with a variety of master’s, or doctorate degree. Obtaining a certificate geospatial intelligence issues, such as those that con- does not mean that a person is legally “registered” in a cern coupled human-environmental systems (e.g., the profession. Registration usually requires the applicant national security implications of climate change, eco- to pass a rigorous standardized test administered by nomic globalization, poverty, and transborder migra- state-legislated authorities. tion). Interdisciplinary programs commonly begin at A substantial number of institutions grant cer- the initiative of faculty, although a few agency programs tificates in cartography, GIS, and remote sensing (see are available to support their development. Table A.14, Appendix A). There are no universal stan- 4 See . 3 See . 5 See .

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CURRENT TRAINING PROGRAMS 81 Integrative Graduate Education and Research Trainee- ideas, and courses, and, in some cases, to stronger in- ship (IGERT) Program. The National Science Founda- stitutional support for interdisciplinary approaches. For tion (NSF) established the IGERT program to produce example, some IGERTs have become self-sustaining Ph.D. scientists and engineers with interdisciplinary Ph.D. programs after NSF support ended (Box 6.1). training, discipline knowledge, and technical, profes- sional, and personal skills (e.g., communication, ethics, University of Southern California (USC) Joint Games teamwork, leadership) that are useful to both academic Program. Games have moved beyond simple enter- and nonacademic careers.6 IGERT grants are awarded tainment to become tools that support a variety of ap- competitively to university faculty, and projects can be plications, including military recruitment and training funded for as long as 10 years. The projects are orga- (e.g., America’s Army game;8 NRC, 1997) and training nized around an interdisciplinary science theme but in human geography. For example, “Sudan: Darfur is include opportunities for hands-on experience, work Dying” is a narrative video game that simulates the in other countries, and professional development (e.g., experience of 2.5 million refugees in the Darfur region internships) that complement academic preparation. (Figure 6.2). Players deal with threats to the survival of A number of IGERTs have touched on the core or their refugee camp, such as possible attack by Janjaweed emerging areas discussed in this report. For example, militias. They can also learn more about the genocide, the Sensor Science, Engineering, and Informatics human rights, and the humanitarian crisis in Darfur. p ­ roject at the University of Maine is examining all Games are inherently multidisciplinary, requiring aspects of sensor systems, from the science and engi- designers, engineers, and artists to come together to neering of new materials to the interpretation of sensor design the gameplay and visuals and to program the data. The objective is to use knowledge from sensor- software. Games programs at universities also have an generated data to drive development of sensor systems interdisciplinary element. A good example is the USC and advances in sensor materials and devices, and vice joint Games Program, which was created by Michael versa. A recent IGERT with an explicit geospatial Zyda, a member of this committee. The Department of focus was the Integrative Geographic Information Computer Science at USC offers a bachelor’s program Science Traineeship project at the State University in computer science (games) and a master’s program in of New York, Buffalo. The project facilitated inter­ computer science (game development; Zyda, 2009). disciplinary research in geographic information science, The master’s program requires computer science stu- environmental science (e.g., integration of spatial data- dents to take three game design courses in the School bases with regional models to forecast environmental of Cinematic Arts, which are aimed at getting designers changes), and social science (e.g., integration of spatial and engineers used to working together and learning analysis and spatial statistics with GIS to detect crime each other’s strengths. or disease hot spots). As part of the project, the IGERT Students interested in joint game building spend team provided a rapid, large-scale damage assessment their last year building games in large teams of designers, ­ following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.7 computer scientists, and artists from a wide range of de- A 2006 assessment found that the IGERT pro- partments (Figure 6.3). The joint Games Program 491 gram has had a measurable impact on students, faculty, course begins in the spring with a call for game designs. and institutions (Carney et al., 2006). Students in A panel of industry and faculty members chooses which IGERT programs reported feeling well grounded in designs will be developed, and the leads for the game their discipline but better prepared to work in multi- designs chosen flesh out their game design and recruit disciplinary teams and to communicate with people in their teams by the first day of fall classes. During the other disciplines compared to their non-IGERT peers. fall semester, the teams develop a playable prototype. In addition, IGERT faculty increased their interdisci- In the spring semester, midcourse corrections are made plinary work, leading to new collaborations, research 8 The America’s Army game, initially built to support Army 6 See . become the core platform behind many Army training systems. See 7 See . .

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82 FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE BOX 6.1 From an IGERT Project to an Interdisciplinary Ph.D. Program In 1999, Kathleen Carley, committee member and professor at Carnegie Mellon University, received an IGERT award to study social complexity and change using computational analysis of social and organizational data. The primary methods used in the project were network analysis, agent-based modeling, and statistical models of dynamic systems, and students took courses in network analysis, computer simulation, statistics, algorithms or machine learning, and organization or policy science. Students could come from any department in the university, and the course of study was overseen by advisors from the home department, a computer science department, and a social science department. Over the 10-year lifespan of the project, 18 students received some support from the program and 10 others became affiliates. Shortly after the IGERT project began, several other educational initiatives that blended computer science and social, organizational, or policy science were started at Carnegie Mellon University. Because these programs were spread over many departments and colleges, mentoring the grow­ ing number of students became increasingly difficult. By 2001, several faculty with interdisciplinary interests in computer science and the social and organizational sciences had moved their appointments to the Institute for Software Research, a new department in the College of Computer Science. These faculty banded together to form the Computation and Organization Science (COS) Ph.D. program, which became a standing program in 2004. The COS curriculum was designed after the IGERT curriculum, but was expanded to include a policy component. The COS program is aimed at producing new Ph.D.s capable of (1) assessing the social or policy impact of new computational technologies, such as crowdsourcing technologies for disaster response; and (2) designing, developing, and testing new computational technologies that will affect humans at the societal, cultural, or policy level, such as new cell-phone applications that track and share the movements of individuals. Students are taught the basics of social network analysis and the advanced methods integral to dynamic network analysis, and the program of study is tailored through electives that can be taken in any of the colleges at Carnegie Mellon University. Special attention is placed on geo-enabled network analytics. Where the goal is to track the region of influence of actors of interest or to identify how to disrupt terror or piracy networks in a region, the combination of social and spatial information and the use of unified tools is critical. Through a combination of project-based courses and research, the students acquire knowledge, skills, and practical experience needed to contribute to advances in these areas. Today the COS program has 27 Ph.D. students and 18 alumni who are employed in both industry and academia. Students trained in networks, and in particular those with a strong computational or geo-network background, are in high demand. However, the number of qualified students applying to conduct research in this area far exceeds the available fellowships, research grants, and industry support for master’s programs. FIGURE 6.2  Screenshot of a Sudan game intervention: spreading beliefs to reduce levels of intertribal hostility. SOURCE: Courtesy of the USC GamePipe Laboratory.

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CURRENT TRAINING PROGRAMS 83 FIGURE 6.3  Participants in the joint USC Games Program, including several USC departments, Atlantic College (Puerto Rico), and the Laguna College of Art and Design (LCAD) Game Art Program. The solid lines indicate strong participation; dashed lines indicate some participation. NOTE: CS = Computer Science Department; FA = Fine Arts Program; ITP = Institute of Creative Technologies; VSoE = Viterbi School of Engineering. and the teams continue developing their games. At the the top game design program by the Princeton Review end of the semester, each team demonstrates a polished in March 2011,9 and it is not unusual for the student product with 2–4 hours of gameplay to fellow students teams to be recruited by the gaming industry. and industry executives. Building the USC joint Games Program required Summer Programs time, effort, and courage. The question of how and when to support a new area is difficult for most uni- Advanced techniques and methods are commonly versities. Moreover, the university department structure taught in university summer courses. The largest U.S. works against multi- and interdisciplinary programs, summer program in GIS and spatial analysis is offered and issues about where to establish the departmental by the Interuniversity Consortium for Political and home, where to manage the budget, how to evaluate S ­ ocial Research (ICPSR), which is based at the Uni- the faculty, and how to obtain enough space had to be resolved. However, once established, the program has 9 See .

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84 FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE versity of Michigan. ICPSR offers 5-day workshops ceiving full salary and benefits. NGA identifies critical dealing with introductory spatial regression analysis skills needed, interested employees apply for specific and spatial econometrics. Its counterpart in the United programs, and universities accept applicants through Kingdom is the University of Essex Summer School in the normal selection process. The program pays for Social Science Data Analysis, which offers a 2-week tuition and all course-related expenses for classes in intensive course on spatial econometrics. The Spa- bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate programs. The tial Econometrics Association runs a 4-week Spatial master’s program is funded for 1 year (three semesters) Econometrics Advanced Institute every summer in and the doctorate program is funded for 2 years (six Rome. semesters). Obtaining a degree is not required, and Summer courses in network analysis are offered indeed most advanced degrees can barely be completed by ICPSR and Carnegie Mellon University’s Center within these time periods. for Computational Analysis of Social and Organiza- About 70 universities and colleges currently par- tional Systems (CASOS) and COS Ph.D. program. ticipate in the Vector Study Program. One of the The ­ ASOS summer institute provides continual C longest running programs is the graduate program in re­ ducation on geo-enabled network analysis and e photogrammetry at Purdue University, which was es- d ­ ynamical analysis. Courses focus on new tools for tablished in the mid-1960s primarily to train employees analyzing network data, which are evolving rapidly; of federal agencies, including the Defense Mapping changes in technologies for data collection, visual- Agency, a predecessor of NGA. The program offers ization, and forecasting that influence the analysis master’s degrees, both thesis (research oriented) and of network data; and advanced analyses that have a nonthesis options, and doctorate degrees. Most trainees spatial, temporal, or large-scale data component. All elected the master’s nonthesis option, which offers a COS Ph.D. students have the opportunity to take this large number of courses (10–12). The few who chose program and teach in it, and the new advances that the thesis option usually worked on topics related to they develop are presented as part of an associated their agency’s activities, seeking solutions to problems symposium. encountered in production. Ph.D. trainees commonly worked on state-of-the-art problems of interest to their GOVERNMENT agency. Topics covered in Purdue’s graduate program Government training programs are established to include the fundamentals of photogrammetry, sensor meet the specialized needs of federal agencies. Mili- (passive, active, motion-imagery) modeling, platforms tary colleges offer an opportunity to train students in (space, airborne, unmanned), lidar, information extrac- relevant disciplines and techniques within the context tion (targeting, image products such as ortho-imagery, of national security and defense. Training programs of- digital elevation models, map features), and photo- fered by federal agencies provide a means for employees grammetric data as input to Computer Aided Design, to update or augment necessary skills. Such training is GIS, and virtual reality databases. Other allied courses important for geospatial intelligence, given the rapid in the program include analytical fundamentals for advances in geospatial technologies and the need for geomatics, adjustment of geospatial observations, co- operational knowledge, experience, and tactics, which ordinate systems and conformal mapping, advanced cannot be fully taught in academic settings. geospatial estimation, modeling, and exploitation of multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing systems. Stu- NGA Vector Study Program dents who stay beyond the first year enroll in courses in related areas, such as orbit mechanics (for integration The Vector Study Program, originally called the into photogrammetric modeling) and digital image Long Term Full Time Training (LTFTT) program, processing and analysis (learning the approaches to was established more than 50 years ago to enable civil- image feature correspondence). They delve deeply into ian employees of NGA’s predecessor organizations to advanced photogrammetric problems, such as image obtain university training in selected areas while re- registration (image to image and image to reference

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CURRENT TRAINING PROGRAMS 85 data) and the complex task of image and data ­usion.f and operational requirements and to incorporate the re- Additional courses include GIS, remote sensing, sults of evaluations of previous training (NWS, 2008). ­geodesy, statistics, navigation, radar, numerical analysis, and databases. Military Colleges The nonthesis master’s degree at Purdue has trained hundreds of employees of NGA and its precursor agen- Some U.S. military colleges and universities cies in its 50 years of existence. In addition, several o ­ ffer classes or degrees in geospatial topics, often in individuals received doctorates and went on to become the context of intelligence or national defense. The technical leaders within the agency. U.S. Military Academy offers a bachelor’s degree in ­ eography and environmental engineering, with g NOAA National Weather Service courses related to environmental geography, human geography, cartography, and geographic informa- The National Weather Service (NWS) issues tion science. The U.S. Air Force Academy offers a weather forecasts and warnings for the protection of ­bachelor’s degree in geography, with courses in remote life and property. Weather forecasters fuse results from sensing, political geography, human geography, car- dynamic model projections, weather images from ­radars tography, and spatial analysis. The other academies or satellites, ground observations, spotter reports, and provide some geospatial training within other pro- their own understanding of storm evolution and atmo- grams (e.g., ocean science, strategic intelligence and spheric dynamics to determine the timing, duration, homeland security). At the graduate level, both the and spatial extent of the warning. The need to discern Naval Postgraduate School and the Air Force Institute actionable weather intelligence under tight time pres- of Technology offer geography courses and courses sure mimics what is needed for geospatial intelligence. that use GIS and human geography technologies, Moreover, weather information and technologies are although neither has a degree program in this area. innately geospatial, and the skills needed to prepare Because students generally go into service following a weather forecast and issue a warning (e.g., informa- graduation, their formal training can be outdated by tion synthesis, situation awareness) are similar to those the time they enter the workforce. However, their needed by NGA scientists and analysts. Thus, NWS experience within the services commonly refines and training may be a useful model for NGA training, par- updates their applied geospatial skills. ticularly in the areas of forecasts, GEOINT fusion, and geospatial analysis. PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES AND The NWS operates three training facilities, includ- NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS ing the Warning Decision Training Branch in Norman, Oklahoma. The warning decision facility provides Short courses and conference workshops offered in-residence training workshops and distance learning by professional societies (e.g., Table 6.1) and other modules on weather radar operations, particularly the nongovernmental organizations provide immersive, integrated data environment, warning methodology, short-term training on a variety of geospatial ­opics t situation awareness, and decision making.10 In the ad- of ­ otential interest to NGA. For example, the Asso­ p vanced warning operation course, students are taught ciation of American Geographers (AAG) hosts work- the theoretical underpinning of situation awareness, shops on software applications for geospatial analysis. then are given exercises, developed from past weather Geospatial technology workshops are led by creden- events, to simulate severe weather operations. These tialed experts and typically run a half or full day as exercises allow students to practice advanced warn- part of the annual conference program. The American ing concepts in an operational context under different Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing s ­evere weather scenarios. The curriculum is adjusted (ASPRS) offers numerous remote sensing workshops each year to respond to changing NWS strategic goals and webinars each year. The workshops and webinars in 2011, for example, focused on hyperspectral and lidar 10 instruments and on accuracy assessment. Some of these See .

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86 FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE TABLE 6.1  Major Professional Societies Offering Training in Core or Emerging Areas Professional Society Mission Subject Areas American Geophysical Union (AGU) Promote discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity Geodesy, geophysics, remote sensing American Planning Association Advocate excellence in community planning, promote education, and Human geography provide tools and support to meet the challenges of growth and change Association of American Geographers Advocate the understanding of the world’s geography, including human Cartography, GIS and (AAG) and physical systems and the use of geographic techniques geospatial analysis, human geography, remote sensing American Society for Photogrammetry and Promote the ethical application of active and passive sensors, Cartography, GIS, Remote Sensing (ASPRS) photogrammetry, remote sensing, and geospatial technologies; and photogrammetry, remote advance the understanding of geospatial and related sciences sensing Association for Computing Machinery Address issues related to the acquisition, management, and processing of Cartography, GIS, remote Special Interest Group (ACM SIG) spatial spatially related information sensing Cartography and Geographic Information Connect professionals who work in cartography and geographic Cartography, GIS, Society (CaGIS) information science, both nationally and internationally photogrammetry, remote sensing IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Advance science and technology in geoscience, remote sensing and related Geodesy, photogrammetry, Society (GRSS) fields remote sensing Institute of Navigation (ION) Advance the art and science of positioning, navigation, and timing Geodesy, remote sensing, cartography International Society for Photogrammetry A society of national societies and organizations specializing in Photogrammetry, remote and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) photogrammetry and remote sensing sensing Society of Photographic Instrumentation Advance light-based technologies Geodesy, photogrammetry, Engineers (SPIE) remote sensing University Consortium for Geographic Serve as a voice for the geographic information science research Cartography, GIS, remote Information Science (UCGIS) community, foster multidisciplinary research and education, and promote sensing the use of geographic information science and geographic analysis for the benefit of society Urban and Regional Information Systems Use GIS and other information technologies to solve challenges in state, Cartography, GIS, human Society (URISA) regional, and local government agencies geography, remote sensing workshops and webinars provide opportunities for par- on spatial statistics with open-source software offered ticipants to obtain formal continuing education credit during the GeoStat 2011 Conference. The Institute of needed for employment, certification, or recertification. Navigation (ION) offers geodesy-related short courses A number of conferences include short courses for professional development in positioning, navigation, ranging from several hours to several days focusing and timing. For example, the 2011 ION annual GNSS on particular software programs, advanced methods international technical meeting included 16 courses on in GIS or geospatial analysis, or other specialized GPS/GNSS from beginner to advanced levels. Short t ­ opics. For example, the Cartography and Geographic training courses on social networks are held regularly Information Society (CaGIS) offers cartography and at the main International Network for Social Network GIS-related short courses, such as the 1-week course Analysis meeting and sometimes at meetings of the

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CURRENT TRAINING PROGRAMS 87 Academy of Management, the American Sociological ment agencies, professional societies, and industry. Association, and the Institute for Operations Research Universities provide the widest variety of training and the Management Sciences. These training sessions programs, ranging from comprehensive degree pro- have helped spread new capabilities and also contrib- grams that cater to individuals preparing for a career uted to growth in the field. in geospatial science or technology to specialized pro- grams and certificates aimed at expanding or updating INDUSTRY the knowledge and skills of professionals. Although a few universities offer degrees in interdisciplinary Several companies provide training in using the fields, such as those related to the emerging areas, tools they have developed, some of which are ­ eing b such programs remain difficult to create and sustain. used by NGA. Among the most notable is the Envi­ Training offered by government agencies, professional ronmental Research Systems Institute (ESRI), a com- societies, and private companies focuses on education pany specializing in GIS software and geodatabase and professional development of individuals already in management applications. ESRI hosts an annual user’s the workforce and generally takes the form of work- conference, which is a forum for training individuals to shops, short courses, or classes on particular tools or use ESRI products. Courses, which are either taught by techniques. Distance learning is increasingly an option instructors or are self-paced, focus on GIS technology for all types of training. skills and practices to accomplish GIS workflows on The training programs chosen to address Task 3 the desktop, server, and mobile web.11 BAE Systems have a long record of accomplishment, a critical mass offers courses on its photogrammetric products and of high-caliber instructors, a substantial number of stu- workstations with SOCET GXP software in several dents, and/or provide an opportunity to solve problems cities.12 Intergraph Corp. teaches 1- to 4-day classes in a real-world context. The example programs and in geospatial technology, video systems, and its geo- their relevance to NGA are as follows: media software on request in Madison, Alabama.13 In addition, some manufacturers of GPS/GNSS receivers • A typical undergraduate curriculum, which offer training courses to their customers. Navtech GPS provides a foundation of geospatial knowledge and currently offers 12 courses, some of which deal with skills (e.g., University of Colorado’s Department of the geodetic aspects of GPS/GNSS, at both public Geography). venue and corporate facilities.14 Most of these courses • Master’s of science programs, which empha- are based on proprietary systems, although training size solutions to real-world problems (e.g., George based on open-source software and tools is beginning ­Mason University’s master’s program in geographic and to emerge (e.g., open-source GIS boot camp offered by ­cartographic sciences). Geospatial Training Services LLC).15 • Professional science master’s program aimed at producing graduates with a mix of scientific expertise SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS and practical workforce skills (e.g., North Carolina State University’s professional science master’s program The third task of the committee was to describe in geospatial information science and technology). training programs for geospatial intelligence disciplines • Degrees or classes in geospatial topics in the and analytical skills. Training programs relevant to context of intelligence or national defense (e.g., military geospatial intelligence abound in universities, govern- colleges). • Interdisciplinary programs, which are useful 11 See . for dealing with complex geospatial intelligence issues 12 See . 13 See . Organization Science program; University of Southern 14 See . California’s Joint Games Program). 1 5 S e e < h t t p : / / w w w. g e o s p a t i a l t r a i n i n g . c o m / i n d e x . • A mature distance learning program (e.g., php?option=com_catalog&view=node&id=71%3Aopen-source- P ­ ennsylvania State University’s GIS curriculum). gis-bootcamp&Itemid=108>.

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88 FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE • Certificates acknowledging special training navigation, and timing; ESRI’s annual user’s confer- in selected subject matter (e.g., University of Utah ence, with short courses on GIS technology and skills). graduate certificate in GIS with an emphasis in remote • Programs that send employees for training at sensing). universities while receiving full salary and benefits (e.g., • Summer programs, short courses, and work- NGA’s Vector Study Program). shops aimed at teaching advanced techniques and • Operational training in issuing forecasts and methods (e.g., Interuniversity Consortium for Politi- warnings (e.g., National Weather Service’s Warning cal and Social Research’s summer program in GIS and Decision Training Branch). spatial analysis; ION’s short courses in positioning,