erinary medicine, the health care system, and preclinical sciences. PubMed provides access to more than 12 million MEDLINE citations. MEDLINE contains bibliographic citations and author abstracts from more than 4,600 biomedical journals published in the United States and 70 other countries.

The literature search strategy generated search terms based on the committee’s framework approach to its task (see Figure 1-4 in Chapter 1). The initial search strategy paired the terms “physical education” and “physical activity” with terms related to themes including academic achievement, brain development, classrooms, disparities, exercise, fitness, intra- and extramural sports, joint use, mental health, out-of-school time, policy, psychosocial health, recess, school financing, sedentary activity, somatic growth, transportation, and weight. More detailed searches also included terms such as “somatic growth and health,” “muscle,” “heart,” “bone,” “metabolic syndrome,” “lipids,” and “blood pressure.” Searches were typically limited to U.S. populations and to children and adolescents, with the exception of studies examining the long-term and adult health benefits of childhood activity.

In addition, the committee invited presentations from experts on programmatic approaches to physical activity in the school environment (see Appendix D).

The committee developed recommendations, key messages, and action steps based on the evidence retrieved through the literature searches and expert presentations.

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