concerned student than approaching an institutional officer or departmental superior.

Finally, education in research ethics can help all involved in the research process to become informed participants in the self-governance of the scientific community. The ideal of informed participation is as important for members of the scientific community as it is for citizens of the larger political community.

Approaches to Teaching Ethics

Various approaches can be adopted in teaching research ethics. One involves examining the special obligations scientists have by virtue of their expert knowledge and profession and clarifying how practices and standards may differ among disciplines or among institutions. Instruction based on this approach could include discussions of standards of good practice, misconduct in science, questionable research practices, and other misconduct. Specific topics that should be addressed include the following:

  • The necessity of honesty, skepticism, error correction, and verification in science;

  • Principles of data selection, management, and storage, including rights and responsibilities with respect to sharing and granting access to research data, and the special status of data that support published findings;

  • Publication practices, including the importance of timely and appropriate release of significant research findings and the harm that can result from premature or fragmentary publication of results or from publication in multiple forms;

  • Authorship practices, particularly criteria for and obligations of authorship and the proper allocation of credit for specialized contributions; and

  • Training and mentorship practices, including the responsibilities of supervision and the principles that guide collaboration between senior and junior personnel.

Some honorary and professional societies have prepared educational materials to encourage discussions of such topics. The National Academy of Sciences, for example, has published On Being a Scientist (NAS, 1989), an essay written to instruct graduate students in the values and practices of scientists, and Sigma Xi has made its educational essay on ethics and science, Honor in Science (Sigma Xi, 1986), widely available. Scientific Freedom and Responsibility, prepared by Harvard biologist John T. Edsall (1975) for the American Association



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