THE CLIMATE CHANGE EDUCATIONAL PARTNERSHIP:

CLIMATE CHANGE, ENGINEERED SYSTEMS, AND SOCIETY

A REPORT OF THREE WORKSHOPS

Rachelle D. Hollander, Editor

Frazier F. Benya, Co-Editor

Cameron H. Fletcher, Co-Editor

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING
                                      OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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THE CLIMATE CHANGE EDUCATIONAL PARTNERSHIP: CLIMATE CHANGE, ENGINEERED SYSTEMS, AND SOCIETY A REPORT OF THREE WORKSHOPS Rachelle D. Hollander, Editor Frazier F. Benya, Co-Editor Cameron H. Fletcher, Co-Editor NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES     THE  NATIONAL  ACADEMIES  PRESS Washington,  D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 In September 2010, the Center for Engineering, Ethics, and Society at the National Academy of Engineering began working with four other partners on a Climate Change Educational Partnership (CCEP) Phase I planning grant from the National Science Foundation about “Climate Change, Engineered Systems, and Society.” The partners were Arizona State University (ASU), the Boston Museum of Science (MOS), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the University of Virginia (U Va) Much of the coordination and communication over the course of the grant occurred in scheduled monthly (and sometimes more frequent) telephone conferences. Five in-person meetings over the course of the grant were critical to identifying and addressing issues, developing a sense of common purpose, and engaging new partners; three of these meetings included public workshops. This report summarizes results from the workshops. Appendices include related materials. (1) October 10-11, 2010: Initial meeting of partners at ASU, to review proposed activities and coordinate plans. (2) June 6-8, 2011: Project planning meeting and open workshop on Climate, Technology, and Society at the National Academies' Beckman Center. (3) October 17-19, 2011: Project planning meeting and open workshop on Networking Educational Priorities for Climate, Engineered Systems, and Society, at the House of Sweden in Washington, DC. (4) January 10-11, 2012: Meeting of expanded partnership to plan for implementation project for education in climate change, engineered systems, and society, at CSM. (5) January 28-30, 2013: Final project meeting – planning and open workshop at ASU. This publication has been reviewed according to procedures approved by the National Academy of Engineering report review process. Publication of attributed work signifies that it is judged a competent and useful contribution worthy of public consideration, but it does not imply endorsement of conclusions or recommendations by the National Academy of Engineering. The interpretations and conclusions in such publications are those of the authors and do not purport to represent the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering. This project was supported by Contract/Grant No. 1043289 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 13: 978-0-309-31275-2 International Standard Book Number 10: 0-309-31275-2 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. Daniel Mote Jr. is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. Daniel Mote Jr. are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Center for Engineering, Ethics, and Society Advisory Group JOHN AHEARNE, Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, Chair ALICE AGOGINO, University of California, Berkeley STEPHANIE J. BIRD, Ethics Consultant and Co-Editor of Science and Engineering Ethics GLEN DAIGGER, CH2M HILL GERALD E. GALLOWAY, JR., University of Maryland, College Park DEBORAH JOHNSON, University of Virginia WILLIAM KELLY, American Society for Engineering Education FELICE LEVINE, American Educational Research Association MICHAEL LOUI, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign CHRIS SCHAIRBAUM, Texas Instruments, Inc. CAROLINE WHITBECK, Case Western Reserve University WILLIAM WULF, University of Virginia Center Staff RACHELLE D. HOLLANDER, Center Director FRAZIER BENYA, Program Officer SIMIL RAGHAVAN, Associate Program Officer VIVIENNE CHIN, Administrative Assistant Climate Change Educational Partnership (CCEP) Planning Grant: Climate Change, Engineered Systems, and Society External Advisory Board DAVID DANIEL, President, University of Texas – Dallas HELENE HILGER, Professor and Director, Civil and Environmental Engineering, IDEAS Center, University of North Carolina – Charlotte JIM MCCARTHY, Professor, Biological Oceanography, Harvard University RICKY ROOD, Professor, Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan – Ann Arbor BOB ROTH, CEO, Big Green Zero WALTER STAVELOZ, Director, International Relations, Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) iv

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Acknowledgments This publication has been reviewed, in draft form, by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies. The purpose of this independent review process is to provide candid and critical comments to assist the committee and NAE in making its published reports as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The reviewers’ comments and the draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their reviews of this report: Sarah Bell, Senior Lecturer, University College London Glen Daigger, Senior Vice President and Chief Technology Officer, CH2M Hill William Kelly, Director of External Affairs, American Society for Engineering Education Jen Schneider, Associate Professor, Boise State University David Sittenfeld, Program Manager, Boston Museum of Science Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were neither asked to endorse the views expressed in the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its public release. The review was overseen by Gerald E. Galloway, Glenn L. Martin Institute Professor of Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, who was appointed by NAE to ensure that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the editors and the NAE. In addition to the reviewers, CEES wishes to thank the project staff. Vivienne Chin managed the project’s logistical and administrative needs, making sure the workshops ran efficiently and smoothly. NAE senior editor Cameron H. Fletcher edited the chapters for this publication, written by CEES director Rachelle Hollander and program officer Frazier F. Benya. Hollander and Benya also worked with the partnership partners to plan and carry out the workshops, and they coordinated and led the efforts to prepare project reports to NSF. Hollander led the editorial process for this publication and the response to review. CEES associate program officer Simil Raghavan assisted in preparing the manuscript for review. She interviewed project participants and developed several videos about the project for the Online Ethics Center website. NAE senior program officer Janet Hunziker managed the review process. CEES director Rachelle Hollander was the Principal Investigator for the grant; she oversaw the project from start to finish. Finally, the four co-Principal Investigators for the award were instrumental in the creation of the partnership, the development of all project activities and resources, and the preparation and submission of reports to the National Science Foundation, which provided project funding. They are Clark Miller, associate professor, School of Politics and Global Studies, Arizona State University; Paul Fontaine, vice president of education, Museum of Science, Boston; Juan Lucena, professor, Liberal Arts and International Studies, Colorado School of Mines; and Deborah Johnson, professor of applied ethics, University of Virginia. These co-Principal Investigators were greatly assisted by project team members Jason Delborne, Jon Leydens, Junko Munakata Marr, Jen Schneider, and Kathryn Johnson from Colorado School of Mines; Joseph Herkert, Chad Monfreda, and Sharlissa Moore from Arizona State University; David Rabkin and David Sittenfeld from the Boston Museum of Science; Laura Sasso, David Slutsky, Andreas Clarens, and Michael Rodemeyer from University of Virginia, and Liz Cox from Red Rocks Community College. v

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Contents Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW .......................................................................... 1 Chapter 2 INTERACTIONS: DEFINING THE PROBLEMS ....................................................... 8 Chapter 3 INTERVENTIONS: EXAMINING THE RANGE OF SOCIOTECHNICAL RESPONSES ................................................................................................................................ 16 Chapter 4 CROSS-CUTTING THEMES ..................................................................................... 28 Chapter 5 FORMAL EDUCATION INTERVENTIONS ON CLIMATE, ENGINEERED SYSTEMS, AND SOCIETY ........................................................................................................ 37 Chapter 6 INFORMAL EDUCATION ON CLIMATE, ENGINEERED SYSTEMS, AND SOCIETY...................................................................................................................................... 47 Chapter 7 PERSPECTIVES OF ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES, BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY, LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND NATIVE AMERICANS .......................... 57 Appendix A Workshop Agendas .................................................................................................. 67 Workshop on Climate, Society, and Technology ..................................................................... 68 Networking Educational Priorities for Climate, Engineered Systems, and Society ................. 72 Climate Change and America’s Infrastructure: Engineering, Social and Policy Challenges ... 75 Appendix B Participants Lists ...................................................................................................... 78 Climate Change, Engineered Systems, and Society Workshop on Climate, Society, and Technology - Workshop Attendees .......................................................................................... 79 Networking Educational Priorities for Climate, Engineered Systems, and Society – Workshop Attendees................................................................................................................................... 81 Climate Change and America’s Infrastructure: Engineering, Social and Policy Challenges – Workshop Attendees ................................................................................................................. 84 Appendix C Summary of Evaluations .......................................................................................... 89 vii

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