BOX 3.1 Factors Impinging on Demand for Computing Professionals

Factors That Increase Demand

Economic growth

Organizational growth

High turnover

Government technology programs

Increased exports of information technology goods and services

Expansion of the user base

Factors That Decrease Demand

Recession

Organizational shrinkage (downsizing)

Low turnover

Defense cutbacks (also, cutbacks in other government programs)

Increased imports of information technology goods and services

Factors That Are Harder to Quantify

Shift to distributed computing

Shift to more diverse equipment base

Shift in employee mix

tions firms to reduce their work forces by tens of thousands (if not more) employees, including computing professionals, and by many major users of computing and communications systems to trim their information systems organizations at the same time, are important indicators of demand, but they represent only parts of the picture.

Demand has qualitative as well as quantitative dimensions. For example, whether or not the total level of demand changes, employers may decide they need more of some kinds of talent and less of others.2 Thus it is not uncommon to see a company release some employees while it is simultaneously hiring others. John McSorley, human resources manager at Apple Computer, provided a specific illustration in noting that at the time of the workshop (October 1991), Apple had just laid off 600 employees but that at the same time, it had about 720 openings. Demand can also be affected by intangible



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